WWW.THESIS.DISLIB.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Online materials, documents
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 |

«C.J. STIGTER1, ZHENG DAWEI2, L.O.Z. ONYEWOTU3 and MEI XURONG4 TTMI/African Network & Asian PMP Liaison Office, Wageningen University, The ...»

-- [ Page 3 ] --

Stewart (1988, 1991) defined response farming in a more limited way, with respect to adapting cropping to the ongoing rainy season by guidance of agronomical operations, using experiences of the past, preferably from interpretations of meteorological rainfall records with support from traditional expert knowledge where available. Given the indications for increasing variability and change of the climate in terms of rainfall, this will have to be adapted to those new conditions, limiting the period in the past over which the experience can be used (Ati et al., 2002). In agrometeorology, pilot projects with the use of on-line agrometeorological information for farmers to respond to, successfully exist already for two decades in West Africa (e.g. Traore et al., 1992; Diarra, 2001). When such changes in definitions of response farming are accepted, it is only a little step to include other parameters like temperature, a possibility earlier mentioned above in Section 3.2, due to better probabilistic seasonal forecasting techniques (Van Viet, 2001).

The situation described above also has another policies related face. Blench and Marriage (1998) have noted that in rain-fed farming areas of eastern and southern Africa, governments and development projects have encouraged high-input, highrisk strategies such as planting hybrid maize instead of sorghum and millet. This, although long experience of uncertainty about weather patterns had induced farmers to develop complex cultivar mixtures to ensure yields under all conditions. The effects of the prolonged drought of the early nineties could have been less, if the risks had been spread across a range of crops with greater tolerance of low-rainfall regimes, as that had been traditionally done. In another example, the dominance of a few seed companies combined with commercial pressure on farmers and an extremely negative attitude to “old” crops and open-pollinated varieties, as well as the replacement of many traditional livestock breeds with “modern” breeds, has massively increased small farmers’ vulnerability to climate shock events. Because the high risks under adverse conditions are more important for poor farmers than the

TRADITIONAL COPING WITH CLIMATE VARIABILITY

opportunities of better years, here the right policy environment is again surfacing as a necessary condition for services towards sustainable livelihood systems (Blench and Marriage, 1998).

In an even more recent paper, Blench (1999) has noted that multi-lateral agencies are urging that climate forecasts be made available to small-scale farmers. Disaster preparedness strategies, both of governments and NGOs, have begun to take account of such forecasts, and there is considerable interest in assigning them an economic value. However, field studies of the impact of recent forecasts in southern Africa suggest that there is a considerable gap between the information needed by smallscale farmers and that provided by the meteorological services (Blench, 1999).

This was confirmed by investigating the role of intermediaries such as Agricultural Demonstrators in Botswana (Stigter, 2002b) and Provincial Agrometeorologists in Vietnam (Stigter, 2002a). Risk-aversion strategies in LEISA production systems do pose a problem for adapting forecast information. Low-income farmers are interested in a broader range of characteristics of precipitation, notably: total rainfall, patchiness of rainfall, intensity, starting date, distribution of rainfall, end of the rains and prospects for dry spells and their length (Blench, 1999; Ati et al., 2002).

The use of this information then has to be adapted to local soils and topography.

It is exactly here, where scientific quantification/extensions and improvements of Stewart’s response farming approach would bring highly needed solutions (Stewart, 1991; Gadgil et al., 2000). There are recent attempts to define conceptual strategies for demonstration projects of this kind, demanding strategic and tactical interactions between physical, agricultural, social and economic systems, with a long list of elements (Manton, 2001). Carefully organized, but less science driven pilot projects of that kind are highly needed, in which other experience referred to in this paper could be of much use as well (Gadgil, 2001; Stigter, 2002a, b).

4. Additional Considerations for Improving LEISA Farming

The literature on water related examples of combating climate variability and related phenomena of environmental hazards hold a series of lessons also applicable more generally. The above examples show that traditional management technologies and innovations of all kinds are and still become locally available. They belong to the best strategies to cope with climate variability. Dissemination through government and NGO efforts is, however, very necessary because successes are not widespread (Stigter, 2001). Upscaling of results from pilot projects has been reported to face particular barriers and needs wide additional attention (Turton and Bottrall, 1997).

Reports that population growth and agricultural intensification have been accompanied by improved rather than deteriorating soil and water resources (Tiffen et al., 1994) appear very conditional. Improvement of total land husbandry and wider livelihood as a whole are more important than controlling land degradation per se (Shaxson et al., 1997; Boyd and Slaymaker, 2000). The literature indicates that in places prone to frequent disaster or insecurity, simple solutions 266 C. J. STIGTER ET AL.





are bound to be more successful for services to decision making in the prevailing farming systems (Marsh, 2001). An analysis of soil and water conservation projects in Africa concluded that indigenous techniques should be a starting point to obtain success (Reij, 1993). More recent experience confirms this (Stigter and Ng’ang’a, 2001). Examples from Sri Lanka illustrate the role women’s indigenous knowledge can play in conserving sustainability aspects (Ulluwishewa, 1994).

Science can play an appreciable role in increasing understanding and choosing between options for agrometeorological services (Figure 1, also e.g. MacLeod, 1997; Gadgil et al., 2000), but differences in concepts and interests between farmers and scientists should be explicitly recognized (e.g. Cartier van Dissel and de Graaff, 1998). Finally, it should be observed that experiments with traditional aspects of sustainable agriculture as exemplified in this paper provide important information, evidence and morale boosting for building agrometeorological services for decision making on risk management in agricultural systems. However, knowing their inherent limitations in actual agricultural practice, using contemporary science and policy support systems for guidance, is absolutely necessary. We want to make objectives and action plans (and their support systems) more realistic and to the point for creating (improved agrometeorological services for) sustainable livelihood systems (Santhakumar, 1995).

References

Abdalla, Ahmed el-Tayeb, Stigter, C. J., Mohamed, Habiballa A/Hafiz, Mohammed, Ahmed Eltayeb and Gough, M. C.: 2001, ‘Effects of wall linings on moisture ingress into traditional grain storage pits’,Int. J. Biometeorol. 45, 75–80.

Abdalla, Ahmed el-Tayeb, Stigter, C. J., Gough, M. C., Mohamed, Habiballa A/Hafiz and Mohammed, Ahmed Eltayeb.: 2002a, ‘Underground sorghum storage in cracking clay needs shallow pits, chaff linings and wide caps’, Trop. Sci. 42, 57–65.

Abdalla, Ahmed el-Tayeb, Kamal, Hamid Ali, Stigter, C. J., Adam, Ibrahim Adam, Mohamed, Habiballa A/Hafiz, Mohammed, Ahmed Eltayeb, and Gough, M. C.: 2002b, ‘Impact of soil types on sorghum grain stored in underground pits in Central Sudan’, Agric. Eng. J. 11, 219–229.

Acosta Baladon, A. N.: 1995, Agricultural Uses of Occult Precipitation, Agrometeorological Applications Associates, Ornex, France, p. 146.

An, Yulin and Tuo, Debao.: 2001, ‘Study on the land use sustainable and reasonable at ecotone in Inner-Mongolia’, in ICAST (ed.), Promoting Global Innovation of Agricultural Science & Technology and Sustainable Agriculture Development, Session 3: Resources and Environment, Beijing, China, pp. 403–407.

Anonymous: 2001, ‘Meteorology, folk wisdom, Junagadh: Traditional weather-forecasting on trial’, The Economist 24th November 2001, pp. 82–83.

Arnold, M. and Dewees, P.: 1998, ‘Rethinking approaches to tree management by farmers’, Nat.

Resource perspect. 26, ODA, London, p. 9.

Ati, O. F., Stigter, C. J., and Oladipo, E. O.: 2002, ‘A comparison of methods to determine the onset of the growing season in Northern Nigeria’, Int. J. Climatol. 22, 731–742.

Bakheit, Nageeb Ibrahim, Stigter, K., and Abdalla, Ahmed el-Tayeb.: 2001, ‘Underground storage of sorghum as a banking alternative’, LEISA Magazine 17(1), p.13.

TRADITIONAL COPING WITH CLIMATE VARIABILITY

Baldy, Ch. M. and Stigter, C. J.: 1997, Agrometeorology of Multiple Cropping in Warm Climates, Translated from the French with an Epilogue to the English edn., INRA, Paris, France;

Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, India; Science Publishing Inc., Enfield, U.S.A., p. 237.

Berg, T., Dava, F., and Muchanga, J.: 2001, ‘Post-disaster rehabilitation and seed restoration in flood affected areas of Xai-Xai District, Mozambique’, SD dimensions, p. 6, Retrived from http://www.fao.org/sd Blench, R.: 1999, ‘Seasonal climate forecasting: Who can use it and how should it be disseminated’, Nat. Resource perspect. 47, ODA, London, p. 4.

Blench, R. and Marriage, Z.: 1998, ‘Climatic uncertainty and natural resource policy: What should the role of government be?’ Nat. Resource perspect. 31, ODA, London, p. 8.

Boffa, J.-M.: 1999, ‘Agroforestry parklands in sub-Saharan Africa’, FAO Conservation Guide 34, FAO, Rome, p. 230.

Boyd, C. and Slaymaker, T.: 2000, ‘Re-examining the “more people less erosion” hypothesis: Special case or wider trend?’, Nat. Resource perspect. 63, ODA, London, p. 6.

Brokensha, D., Warren, D. M., and Werner, O.: 1980, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Development, University Press of America, Lanham, p. 460.

Bunting, A. H.: 1975, ‘Time, phenology and the yields of crops’, Weather 30, 312–325.

Byron, N. and Shepherd, G.: 1998, ‘Indonesia and the 1997–98 El Nino: Fire problems and long-term solutions’, Nat. Resource perspect. 28, ODA, London, p. 8.

Cartier van Dissel, S. and de Graaff, J.: 1998, ‘Differences between farmers and scientists in the perception of soil erosion: A South African case study’, Indigenous Knowledge and Dev. Monitor 6(3), p 4. Also on http://www.nuffic.ciran Clemens, M. and Nashrullah, L. H.: 1999, ‘Wild food plants in an indigenous food and agricultural system: A case study from west Java’, in Adimihardja, K. and Clemens, M. (eds.), Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Development, UPT.INRIK – UNPAD, Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 44–54.

Das, H. P.: 2001, Potential of Water Harvesting in India by Traditional Methods in Semi-Arid and Arid Zones of India, contribution submitted for this paper to WMO/CAgM.

Diarra, B.: 2001, ‘Agrometeorologie au service d’un developpement humain durable au Mali’, in Contributions from Members on Operational Applications in Agrometeorology and from Discussants on the Papers Presented at the International Workshop: “Agrometeorology in the 21st Century, Needs and Perspectives”, CAgM Report No. 77b, WMO/TD No. 1029, WMO, Geneva, pp 41–42.

Gadgil, S., Sestagiri Rao, P. R., Narahari Rao, N., and Savithri, K.: 2000, ‘Farming strategies for a variable climate’, in: Sivakumar, M. V. K. (ed.), Climate Prediction and Agriculture, Int. START Secretariat, pp. 215–248.

Houghton, J.: 1997, Global Warming: The Complete Briefing, (2nd edn.), Cambridge University Press, p. xv, 251.

ILEIA: 1995, ‘Research and reality’, ILEIA Newsletter 11(2), p. 36.

Karing, P. H., Stigter, C. J., Chen, Wanlong, and Wilken, G. C.: 1992, ‘Application of microclimate management and manipulation techniques in low external input agriculture’, in Stigter C. J. (ed.), CAgM Report No. 43, WMO/TD-No. 499, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, p. 192.

Katz, A. R.: 2002, ‘Sahara is contracting as climate issues grow’, Wall Street J. Eur. 16 October 2002, p. A12.

LEISA: 2000, ‘Grassroots innovation’, ILEIA Newsletter 16(2), p. 40.

LEISA: 2001, ‘Coping with disaster’, LEISA Magazine 17(1), p. 36.

Luo, Shiming: 2001, ‘An ecological approach to sustainable agricultural development’, in ICAST (ed.), Promoting Global Innovation of Agricultural Science & Technology and Sustainable Agriculture Development, Session 2: Sustainable Agriculture, Beijing, China, pp. 56–59.

Manton, M. J.: 2001, ‘Climate prediction to enhance agricultural production in developing countries’, in ICAST (ed.), Promoting Global Innovation of Agricultural Science & Technology and 268 C. J. STIGTER ET AL.

Sustainable Agriculture Development, Session 3: Resources and Environment, Beijing, China, pp. 307–309.

MacLeod, K.: 1997, ‘Seeking sustainability in rural Egypt: Linking scientific and indigenous knowledge’, IDRC Reports, Retrived from http://www.idrc.ca/books/reports Marsh, N.: 2001, ‘It is time to celebrate the spirit of the African farmer’, LEISA Magazine 17(1), 14.



Pages:     | 1 | 2 || 4 |


Similar works:

«The Rural Charitable Sector Research Initiative Phase II The Capacity Challenges of Nonprofit & Voluntary Organizations in Rural Ontario Susan Stowe Cathy Barr Working in Partnership © 2005, Imagine Canada Copyright of The Rural Charitable Sector Research Initiative Phase II: The Capacity Challenges of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations in Rural Ontario is waived for nonprofit and voluntary organizations for non-commercial use. Imagine Canada 425 University Avenue, Suite 900 Toronto,...»

«2014 Nuru Kenya Agriculture Program Impact Assessment Results of the 2014 Agriculture Harvest Yield Survey December 2014 Authored by Bethany Paris With contributions from Kim Do Kristin Lindell Veronica Olazabal Executive Summary The Nuru Kenya (NK) Agriculture Program aims to impact crop yield, food security, and household income by providing member farmers with a farm input loan, technical training, extension services, and group support structures. The Nuru Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)...»

«Payments for Environmental Services From Agricultural Landscapes THE ROLE OF PAYMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES (PES) AS REWARD MECHANISMS FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT IN EAST AFRICA WORKSHOP REPORT Capacity-building workshop FAOCARE Tanzania Dar es Salaam 4-6 February 2008 Organization PESAL project team, Agriculture and Development Economics Division, UN Food and Agriculture OrganizationFAO, funded by the FAO Netherlands Partnership Programme FAO Land and Water division and the upcoming...»

«St Matthew’s Church, Cainscross Parish Profile 2014 Context The parish of St Matthew Cainscross is in the Diocese of Gloucester and is part of the Archdeaconry of Gloucester and the Stroud Deanery, where it sits on the western side of the Stroud Team Ministry area. The Stroud district is semi-urban, but sits in the heart of rural Cotswold. It has a population of around 115,000, of which around 7000 live in the parish, in a mixture of privately owned as well as social and privately rented...»

«Available online at www.centmapress.org Proceedings in System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks 2016 Financial Markets and Agricultural Commodities: Volatility Impulse Response Analysis Lucia Baldi, Massimo Peri and Daniela Vandone University of Milan Via G. Celoria, 2 20133 Milan Italy lucia.baldi@unimi.it 1. Introduction The recent global food crisis has caused an increase in agricultural market volatility, raising important questions on the determinants of this instability. Many...»

«Order Decision Inquiry held on 14 May 2013 Site visit made on 13 May 2013 by Barney Grimshaw BA DPA MRTPI(Rtd) an Inspector appointed by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Decision date: 28 May 2013 Order Ref: FPS/P0430/7/39  This Order is made under Section 53(2)(b) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (the 1981 Act) and is known as The Buckinghamshire County Council (Byways Open to All Traffic No. 6, Parish of Stowe and Nos. 11 (Part) and 12, Parish of...»

«Gender in Aquaculture and Fisheries: Moving the Agenda Forward Asian Fisheries Science Special Issue Vol.25S (2012):243-250 Asian Fisheries Society ISSN 0116-6514 A Study on the Availability and Utilisation of Microcredit in the Traditional Fisheries Sector of Kerala, India NIKITA GOPAL1*, P. JEYANTHI1, V.CHANDRASEKAR1 and B. MEENAKUMARI2 1Division of Fisheries, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin, India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan II, New...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.thesis.dislib.info - Online materials, documents

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.