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«C.J. STIGTER1, ZHENG DAWEI2, L.O.Z. ONYEWOTU3 and MEI XURONG4 TTMI/African Network & Asian PMP Liaison Office, Wageningen University, The ...»

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MOST/CIRAN: ‘The bethma practice: Promoting the temporary redistribution of lands during drought periods’, SRI LANKA, BP.21, Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge Database, Retrived from http://www.nuffic.ciran MOST/CIRAN: ‘Improving tassa planting pits: Using indigenous soil and water conservation techniques to rehabilitate degraded plateaus in the Tahoua region of Niger’, NIGER, BP.10, Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge Database, Retrived from http://www.nuffic.ciran MOST/CIRAN: ‘Ecological restoration of degraded watershed on the upper reaches of the Minjiang River: Integration of Qiang ethno-botanical knowledge and practices into a reforestation project’, China, BP.15, Best Practices on Indigenous Knowledge Database, Retrived from http://www.nuffic.ciran Mungai, D. N. and Stigter, C. J.: 1993, ‘The use of weather and climate information in planning and management of food security and production in Africa under conditions of increasing climate variability’, Chapter 7.1 in Proceedings of the First International Conference of the African Meteorological Society on “Recent Climate Anomalies and Prediction in Africa”, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 596–600.

Mungai, D. N., Stigter, C. J., Coulson, C. L., Ng’ang’a, J. K., Netondo, G. W. S., and Umaya, G. O.:

2001, ‘Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea Mays L.) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos, Eastern Kenya’, J. Environ. Sci. 13, 291–298.

Murthy, V. R. K.: 2002, ‘A cry for help after serious hail damage in India’, Needs for Agrometeorological Solutions to Farming Problems, Retrived from INSAM website http:// www.agrometeorology.org.

Nasr, N., Chahbani, B., and Ben Ayed, A.: 2000, ‘Innovation by Tunisian women in dryland farming’, ILEIA Newsletter 16(2), p.20.

Norman, D. W.: 2001, ‘Survival and sustainability in low-income countries: Incorporating farming households in the struggle’, in ICAST (ed.), Promoting Global Innovation of Agricultural Science & Technology and Sustainable Agriculture Development, Session 2: Sustainable Agriculture, Beijing, China, pp. 112–124.

Norse, D. and Tschirley, J. B.: 2000, ‘Links between science and policy making’, Agric. Ecosystem Environ. 82, 15–26.

Olufayo, A. A., Stigter, C. J., and Baldy, C.: 1998, ‘On needs and deeds in agrometeorology in tropical Africa’, Agric. Forest Meteorol. 92, 227–240.

Ong, C. K., Kinama, J., Chiti, R., Gichuki, F., Stigter, C. J., and Ng’ang’a, J. K.: 1996, ‘Agroforestry for soil and water conservation in drylands’, in: Mugah, J. O. (ed.), People and Institutional Participation in Agroforestry for Sustainable Development, First Kenya Agroforestry Conference, NASC and ICRAF, Nairobi, pp. 297–308; Also appeared as E. Afr. Agric. Forest J. 62, 151–162.

Onyewotu, L. O. Z, Stigter, C. J., Oladipo, E. O., and Owonubi, J. J.: 1998, ‘Yields of millet between shelterbelts in semi-arid northern Nigeria, with a traditional and a scientific method of determining sowing date, and at two levels of organic manuring’, in Van Duivenbooden, N. and Neeteson, J. J. (eds.), Using Scientific and Indigenous Knowledge at Different Scale Levels to Develop Sustainable Agriculture in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of West Africa, Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 46, 53–64.

Onyewotu, L. O. Z, Stigter, C. J., Abdullahi, A. M., Ariyo, J. A., Oladipo, E. O., and Owonubi, J. J.:

2003, ‘Reclamation of desertified farmlands and consequences for its farmers in semiarid northern Nigeria: A case study of Yambawa rehabilitation scheme’, Arid Land Res. Manage. 17, 85–101.

TRADITIONAL COPING WITH CLIMATE VARIABILITY

Orev, Y.: 1986,‘A practical handbook on desert range improvement techniques’, Interagency Group on Agricultural Biometeorology, FAO/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO, Geneva, 165 pp.

Othieno, C. O., Stigter, C. J., and Mwampaja, A. R.: 1985, ‘On the use of Stigter’s ratio in expressing thermal efficiency of grass mulches’, Expl. Agric. 21, 169–174.

Paltridge, I. J. and Ma’shum, M. (eds.): 2002, Will it Rain? The Effect of the Southern Oscillation and El Nino in Indonesia, Department Primary Industries, Queensland, Australia, p. 50.

Reij, C.: 1993, ‘Improving indigenous soil and water conservation techniques: Does it work?’, Indigenous Knowledge Dev. Monit. 1(1), 4 pp ; Also on http://www.nuffic.ciran Reijntjes, C., Haverkort, B., and Waters-Bayer, A.: 1992, Farming for the Future: An Introduction to Low-External-Input and Sustainable Agriculture, Macmillan Education Ltd./ILEIA, London/Leusden, p. 250.

Rivero Vega, R. E.: 2002, ‘Adaptation measures in areas prone to hail damage’, in Accounts of Operational Agrometeorology, Retrived from INSAM Web site http://www.agrometeorology.org SAAS: 1977, What can we do for Crops Damaged by Hail?, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Laboratory of Agrometeorology, Agricultural Press (in Chinese).

Salinger, M. J., 2004. ‘Climate variability and change; Past, present and future: An overview’, Climatic Change, submitted for this volume.

Salinger, M. J., Desjardins, R. L., Jones, M. B., Sivakumar, M. V. K., Strommen, N. D., Veeresamy, S., and Wu, Lianhai: 1997, ‘Climate variability, agriculture and forestry: an update’, WMO Technical Note 199, WMO, Geneva, p. 124.





Salinger, M. J., Stigter, C. J., and Das, H. P.: 2000, ‘Agrometeorological adaptation strategies to increasing climate variabilty and climate change’, in: Sivakumar, M. V. K., Stigter, C. J. and Rijks, D. A. (eds.), Agrometeorology in the 21st Century: Needs and Perspectives, Agric. Forest Meteorol. 103, 167–184.

Santhakumar, V.: 1995, ‘Research on sustainable agriculture compared’. ILEIA Newsletter 11(2), 24–25.

Shaxson, F., Tiffen, M., Wood, A., and Turton, C.: 1997, ‘Better land husbandry: Re-thinking approaches to land improvement and the conservation of water and soil’, Nat. Resource perspect.

19, ODA, London, p. 8.

Shumba, O.: 2001, ‘Farmers’ responses to reduce the risks of drought’, LEISA Magazine 17, 8–9.

Slikkerveer, L. J.: 1999, ‘Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK): Practical implications from the African experience’, in: Adimihardja, K. and Clemens, M. (eds.), Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Development, UPT.INRIK – UNPAD, Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 24–25.

Smith, L. P. (ed.): 1972, The Application of Micrometeorology to Agricultural Problems, WMO Technical Note No. 119, WMO-No. 298, p. 74.

Stewart, J. I.: 1988, Response Farming in Rainfed Agriculture, WHARF Foundation Press, Davis, p.

115.

Stewart, J. I.: 1991, ‘Principles and performance of response farming’, in Muchow, R. C. and Bellamy, J. A. (eds.), Climate Risk in Crop Production: Models and Management for the Semi-Arid Tropics and Sub-Tropics, CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 361–382.

Stigter, C. J.: 1988, Microclimate Management and Manipulation in Traditional Farming, CAgM Report No. 25, WMO/TD-No. 228, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, p. 20, VI Appendices.

Stigter, C. J.: 1994, ‘Management and manipulation of microclimate’, in Griffiths, J. F. (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Meteorology, Oxford University Press, Chapter 27, pp. 273–284.

Stigter, K.: 1995, ‘Transfer of indigenous knowledge and protection of the agricultural environment in Eastern Africa’, in Warren, D. Michael, Slikkerveer, L. Jan and Brokensha, David (eds.), The Cultural Dimension of Development: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Intermediate Technology Publications (IT studies in indigenous knowledge and development), London, pp.

419–425.

270 C. J. STIGTER ET AL.

Stigter, C. J.: 1999, ‘The future of agrometeorology: Perspectives in science and services’, WMO-Bull.

48, 353–359.

Stigter, C. J.: 2001, ‘Operational agrometeorology in Africa and Asia: Lessons for sustainable agriculture’, in ICAST (ed.), Promoting Global Innovation of Agricultural Science & Technology and Sustainable Agriculture Development, Session 2: Sustainable Agriculture, Beijing, China, pp. 276–280.

Stigter, C. J.: 2002a, ‘Opportunities to improve the use of seasonal climate forecasts’ and ‘Climate related extreme events: A review of adaptation options’, in ADPC (ed.), Asian Climate Traing Course. ACT, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, Bangkok, Thailand, CD-ROM.

Stigter, C. J.: 2002b, ‘Introduction to Indonesian condition: Applying climate information for decision making in agricultural production; adaptation options in agricultural production to climate related extreme events’, in UNSRAT (ed.), Climate and Agriculture Production, Lecture Notes, Seminar in Agrometeorology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia.

Stigter, C. J. and Baldy, Ch.M.: 1993, ‘Manipulation of the microclimate by intercropping: Making the best of services rendered’, in Sinoquet, H. and Cruz, P. (eds.), Ecophysiology of Tropical Intercropping, INRA, Paris/Guadeloupe (French Antilles), 29–44.

Stigter, C. J. and Ng’ang’a, J. K.: 2001, ‘Traditional techniques of microclimate improvement African network (TTMI/AN) project for research training’, Successful Research Training Partnership Case Study for GFAR-2000, Global Forum on Agricultural Research, Rome, CD-ROM.

Stigter, C. J., Sivakumar, M. V. K., and Rijks, D. A.: 2000, ‘Agrometeorology in the 21st Century:

Workshop Summary and Recommendations on Needs and Perspectives’, in: Sivakumar, M. V. K., Stigter, C. J. and Rijks, D. A. (eds.), Agrometeorology in the 21st Century - Needs and Perspectives, Agric. Forest Meteorol. 103, 209–227.

Stigter, C. J., Mohammed, Ahmed El-Tayeb, Al-amin, Nawal K. Nasr, Onyewotu, L. O. Z., Oteng’i, S. B. B., and Kainkwa, R. M. R.: 2001, ‘Some African case studies of local solutions to problems caused by wind in smallholder agroforestry’, Proceedings of the 3rd European & African Conference on Wind Engineering, July, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, pp. 419–426.

Stigter, C. J., Mohammed, Ahmed El-Tayeb, Al-amin, Nawal K. Nasr, Onyewotu, L.O.Z., Oteng’i, S. B. B. and Kainkwa, R. M. R.: 2002, ‘Agroforestry solutions to some African wind problems’, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn 90, 1101–1114.

Tchawa, Paul: 2000, ‘Chains of innovations by farmers in Cameroon’, ILEIA Newsletter 16(2), 14–15.

Tiffen, M., Mortimore, M., and Gichuki, F.: 1994, More People, Less Erosion: Environmental Recovering in Kenya, Wiley, Chichester, p. 311.

Traore, K., Diarra, B., and Konare, K.: 1992, ‘Elaboration et mise en oevre de projets pilotes en agrometorologie (Development and use of pilot projects in agrometeorology)’, in La radio rurale et la diffusion des informations agrometeorologiques (Rural Radio and Broadcasting of Agrometeorological Information), WMO/CTA, Geneva/Wageningen, p. 340.

Turton, C. and Bottrall, A.: 1997, ‘Water resource development in the drought-prone uplands’, Nat.

Resource perspect. 18, ODA, London, p. 8.

Ulluwishewa, R.: 1994, ‘Women’s indigenous knowledge of water management in Sri Lanka’, Indigenous Knowledge Dev. Monit. 2(3), p. 4. Also on http://www.nuffic.ciran Van Viet, Nguyen: 2001, ‘The influence of climatic variation on the production of winter-spring rice in the north delta of Viet Nam and the means to cope with it’, in Contributions from Members on Operational Applications in Agrometeorology and from Discussants on the Papers Presented at the International Workshop: “Agrometeorology in the 21st Century – Needs and Perspectives”, CAgM Report No. 77b, WMO/TD No. 1029, WMO, Geneva, pp 103–108.

Warren, D. M., Slikkerveer, L. J., and Brokensha, D. (eds.): 1995, The Cultural Dimension of Development: Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Intermediate Technology Publications (IT studies in indigenous knowledge and development), London, p 582.

Wilken, G. C.: 1972, ‘Microclimate management by traditional farmers’, Geogr. Rev. 62, 544–560.

TRADITIONAL COPING WITH CLIMATE VARIABILITY

Wilken, G. C.: 1987, Good Farmers: Traditional Agricultural Resource Management in Mexico and Central America, University of California Press, Berkley, p. 302.

WMO: 1993, ‘Applications of meteorology to forestry’, Chapter 8 (Supplement No. 3) in Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices, 2nd. edn., WMO:No. 134, Chapter 8, p. 30.

WMO: 2002, Current Advances in Seasonal Forecasts and Climate Prediction and the Products and Services Relevant to Agriculture, CAgM-XIII/Doc. 9.5, item 9.5.7 on the CLIMAG South Asia project.

Zheng, Dawei and Tuo, Debao: 1999, ‘The way of sustainable development in the interlock belt of cultivation and grazing according to the practice of ecological harness in Houshian area of dryland farming’, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Economic and Environmental Sustainable Development in Middle and Western Region of China in the 21st Century, Inner Mongolia People’s Publishing House, Hohhot, p. 7.

Zheng, Dawei (ed.), with contributions from seven co-authors: 2001, ‘Agrometeorology in the 21st century: The needs and prospects in China’, in Contributions from Members on Operational Applications in Agrometeorology and from Discussants on the Papers Presented at the International Workshop: “Agrometeorology in the 21st Century - Needs and Perspectives”, CAgM Report No.

77b, WMO/TD No. 1029, WMO, Geneva, pp 13–29.

Zimmerman, R.: 2001, ‘Agrometeorological aspects of agriculture in the eastern zone of El Salvador’, in Contributions from Members on Operational Applications in Agrometeorology and from Discussants on the Papers Presented at the International Workshop: “Agrometeorology in the 21st Century – Needs and Perspectives”, CAgM Report No. 77b, WMO/TD No. 1029, WMO, Geneva, p 121.

Received 15 December 2003; in revised form 30 June 2004



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