«Women-only focus group discussion in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. 17 August 2011 i Version 1 – August 2011 Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms Executive ...»
Agricultural Learning and Impacts
P4P and Gender:
Literature Review and Fieldwork Report
Women-only focus group discussion in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.
17 August 2011
i Version 1 – August 2011
Abbreviations and Acronyms
1.1 The Purchase for Progress Programme
1.2 Gender and P4P
1.3 Purpose of report
1.5 Structure of report
2 Women’s constraints and opportunities in agriculture
2.1 Gender-specific constraints
2.2 Women’s role in agriculture and the gender division of labour
2.3 Access to and control over resources
2.4 Market access
3 Risks and limitations to gender ambitions in P4P
3.1 The majority of women are not strictly ‘smallholder farmers’
3.2 Women do not control crops procured through P4P
3.3 The complex relationship between income and food security
4 The gender framework
4.1 Purposes and guiding principles
4.2 A multi-dimensional, holistic definition of women’s empowerment
4.3 Three operational approaches on gender
4.4 Categories of women P4P beneficiaries
4.5 Monitoring and evaluation
5 Practical actions for improving gender equity in P4P
5.1 Gender sensitisation
5.2 Women’s active group participation
5.3 Women’s time use
5.4 Functional literacy
5.5 Access to agricultural extension, training and information
5.6 Access to credit and financial services
5.7 Additional actions
6 Key findings, recommendations and conclusions
ii 6.1 Key findings
6.2 General recommendations
6.3 Specific recommendations on practical actions
6.4 Possible operational approaches to gender
Annex 1: Glossary
Annex 2: Proposed partners for the P4P Global Gender Strategy
Annex 3: References
Tables and Figures Table 1: Fieldwork participants
Table 2: Indicators of gender inequality
Table 3: Education indicators
Table 4: Women farmers
Table 5: Gender framework
Table 6: Cumulated P4P contracts by commodity (Sept 2008-31 March 2011)
Table 7: Women’s crops and food products
Figure 1: The process of women’s empowerment
iii Abbreviations and Acronyms AET Agricultural extension and training ALINe Agriculture Learning and Impacts Network BDL Bioreclamation of Degraded Lands BMGF Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation CSB Corn Soya Blend CSB++ Corn Soya Blend Plus Plus CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research CAADP Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture CIP International Potato Center CIP Country Implementation Plan COs Country Offices CoopAfrica Cooperative Facility for Africa DFID UK Department for International Development DHS Demographic and Health Survey DRC the Democratic Republic of Congo FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FFS Farmer field schools FGDs Focus Groups Discussions FHHs Female-headed households FOs Farmers Organisations FRI Farm Radio International GA Gender Assessment GAD Gender and Development GALS Gender Action Learning System HEB High Energy Biscuits HEPS High Energy Protein Supplement ICA International Co-operative Alliance ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ICRW International Center for Research on Women ICT Information and Communication Technology IDS Institute of Development Studies IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute ILO International Labour Organization ILRI International Livestock Research Institute IMT Intermediate means of transport MAFF Management Advice for Family Farms M&E monitoring and evaluation MFP Multifunctional Platform Programme MVIWATA Farmers' Groups Network in Tanzania NASFAM National Smallholder Farmer Organisation in Malawi NGO Non-governmental organisation OWPs Older women from polygamous marriages P4P UN WFP Purchase for Progress PRA Participatory rural appraisal iv RSB Rice Soya Blend RUSF Ready to Use Supplementary Foods SACCO Savings and credit cooperatives SEWA Self Employed Women’s Association SHGs Self-help groups SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIGI Social Institutions and Gender Index SSA Sub-Saharan African TOC Theory of change UNDP United Nations Development Programme VSBK Viswa Santhi Balananda Kendram WB World Bank WEMAN Women’s Empowerment Mainstreaming And Networking WFP UN World Food Programme WID Women in Development WOCAN Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management WSB Wheat Soya Blend v Executive summary The World Food Programme’s Purchase for Progress programme (P4P) is a five year pilot project with a focus on creating opportunities for smallholder producers to become competitive players in agricultural markets in a sustainable way, building a more resilient agricultural sector. Acknowledging the importance of women in the agricultural sector worldwide, WFP is encouraging the participation of women by working to ensure gender sensitivity and equality in all its activities. Women play a prominent and important role in the pilot, particularly providing a contribution to the labour requirements. The success of the P4P model is contingent on their meaningful involvement and well-being. This report reviews current literature on women in agriculture related to P4P implementation.
Purpose of report This report specifically builds on and complements the WFP P4P Occasional Paper II, by critically analysing the gender-related assumptions within this paper and supported by empirical fieldwork in three P4P countries: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Guatemala. The aim of
this literature review and fieldwork report is to:
1. Inform and contribute to the development of a Global Gender Strategy, and serve as reference material for the implementation of this strategy. The report considers what P4P can reasonably expect to achieve for and with women within the current objectives of the P4P programme. It identifies gender inequities in accessing P4P, and explains why it is important to address these. It considers the context-specific gender-related opportunities, constraints and risks that P4P will need to address to ensure gender equity in access to the programme and in promoting women's empowerment.
2. Develop a P4P gender framework to guide action by assessing the potential of actions to address the structural and practical constraints contributing to women’s disadvantaged position in agriculture.
3. Produce recommendations that can be translated into plans for practical action to implement a Global Gender Strategy for P4P.
Structure of report
There are 6 chapters in this report:
Introduction (Section 1). This chapter provides an introduction and context to the research study.
Women’s constraints and opportunities in agriculture (Section 2). This chapter explores the main constraints to women’s full economic and social development. It also highlights leverage points and opportunities in a context of market-based agriculture.
Risks and limitations to gender ambitions in P4P (Section 3). The main limitations to P4P’s approach to gender are laid out and examined.
A gender framework (Section 4). A gender framework to guide P4P’s operational
focuses specifically on the practical actions described in the WFP P4P Occasional Paper II, and it adds substantially by critically analysing its potential, limitations, and risks.
Key findings, recommendations and conclusions (Section 6). This section outlines the main conclusions and recommendations based on the extensive literature review and on the fieldwork conducted in three countries where P4P is implemented: Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Guatemala.
Key findings The report presents a number of key findings. Some of these emphasise the realities of women in agriculture in countries where P4P operates. There is also more detailed focus on
the concerns between the interface of P4P and these gendered realities (see Section 2):
Women make essential contributions to agricultural development. Within these contributions, women face specific constraints that disadvantage them in relation to men.
The constraints are mainly structural and are rooted in the reproduction of unequal gender dynamics at the level of the household, community, markets and the state.
These constraints may reinforce one another, creating a vicious circle of women’s subordination.
These gender relations include a division of labour that results in women generally working longer hours as they must combine reproductive and productive responsibilities. In addition, women find it difficult to graduate from a role in subsistence agriculture to more prominent positions in market-based agriculture.
Gender inequality manifests further in practical constraints to women’s participation.
Women lack access to and control over resources, most notably land but also income, agricultural inputs, extension services, education and social capital.
As a result of this inequality, most women are unpaid family workers. They work on the family farm, regardless of the type of crop (cash crops and subsistence crops). There are female-heads of households (FHHs), and women in certain areas (particularly in West Africa) or of particular circumstances that do engage in the production and trading of crops procured through P4P, but these are in the minority and face a multitude of practical constraints to their engagement with P4P.
Additionally, there are ‘gendered’ crops and ‘gendered’ activities. This means that there are certain crops whose production process is totally controlled by women, with minimal interference from their husbands. However, these are primarily not the type of crops that are procured through P4P. This can be explained by the fact that women’s main focus is on diversifying their livelihood strategies. In many cases, diversification implies a greater investment in activities that are not directly related to the production of crops for the market.
P4P faces a number of risks and limitations with regards to its ambitions for gender:
Most women do not meet the criteria that often define smallholder farmers. In the overwhelming majority of cases, men are the nominal owners of household assets, and therefore recognised as such both by law and custom. Women may have user rights to land, but this type of access can be withdrawn very easily.
In the majority of the countries where P4P operates, the programme may either not be procuring, or if doing so then in relatively small quantities, crops/ food products whose production is more likely to be controlled by women. Some of these crops and food products fall within the wider WFP food basket.
The links between income and food security are complex and the effect of procurement on these aspects of household welfare should be carefully considered as women and children may be especially negatively affected (see Section 3.3).
Women are not a homogeneous group. Their roles in agriculture vary within and across regions and countries, and are determined by other social relations such as class, ethnicity and age. In this report there are four categories/ groups of women that are
1. Women producers and/or marketers of crops currently procured through P4P.
2. Women unpaid family workers.
3. Women producers and/or petty traders of crops and food products currently not procured through P4P.
4. Women casual agricultural labourers.
Not all these groups of women can currently be targeted by the programme.
Consequently, P4P’s targets and indicators on women’s participation (50 percent membership in farmer organisations) may be difficult to reach.
A framework to guide operational approaches to gender To support implementation of the gender strategy, an overall operational approach to gender needs to be articulated. The proposed gender framework (see Section 4)
distinguishes between three approaches:
Gender blind: Such a programme does not distinguish between women’s and men’s roles and assumes equal access to resources.
Gender aware: This type of programme understands and takes into account gender differences in roles and access to resources but does not seek to challenge the status quo. In other words, the programme addresses and deals with the effects, without aiming to contribute towards addressing the causes of the issues affecting women. This may end up contributing to changing the status quo of gender relations in anticipated or unanticipated ways and can have both positive and negative impacts on women.
Gender transformative: This type of programme sets the transformation of unequal gender relations, i.e. contributing to addressing the structural constraints to women’s empowerment, as an explicit goal.
P4P programmes at country level are in a position to decide where they can and wish to position themselves in the context of this gender framework. It is important to note that gender aware and gender transformative categories are not mutually exclusive. Moreover, not all programmes may find it desirable or feasible to follow an entirely gender transformative approach. It is, however, possible for a gender aware programme to contain some gender transformative components and to transition gradually to a more transformative approach over time.
General recommendations Based on these findings there are five general recommendations to ensure that the P4P
gender strategy is practical and meaningful for the women and men involved: