«Women-only focus group discussion in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. 17 August 2011 i Version 1 – August 2011 Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms Executive ...»
It is important to note that these categories may overlap as women can have more than one productive role.
Each of these four groups will require different approaches if they are to be integrated in a gender sensitive way into P4P activities. As can be seen in the framework, a gender aware approach will target a more restricted group of women (primarily group 1 and possibly group 2). For a more transformative approach and to target a broader group of women, The focus of P4P may need to change in order to tackle the structural constraints to empowerment. Suggestions for changes required will be illustrated throughout the following sections, with possible courses of action within the gender aware and gender transformative approaches identified.
The gender framework is illustrated in Table 5 below. The table shows the three operational approaches to gender that target different groups of women and have different outcomes.
Table 5: Gender framework
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4.5 Monitoring and evaluation A key part of this gender framework is monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Done well, M&E of gender activities can support improvements in implementation of gender actions, provide evidence of gendered outcomes, steer gender strategies, support the capacity of women and men stakeholders and share learning about gender more widely. This latter point is particularly important. To support more effective and equitable gender integration in agriculture programmes, more widely available in-depth context specific information about gender roles is needed, particularly information about what works and how (FAO 2011a).
This section describes some key issues in gender-sensitive M&E.43 4.5.1 The theory of change as an operational tool for programme planning and M&E The articulation of a theory of change (TOC) as one of the key building blocks in M&E systems. A TOC comprises the assumptions held by programme stakeholder about the context of any intervention and how social change happens. Making this TOC explicit allows stakeholders reach consensus about the problem to be solved, the long-term vision, the types of changes that can be expected, the targets for change (including stakeholders, how they will act and possible conflicts of interest), the broad conditions and strategies that might make the changes possible, and the premises, assumptions and values that underpin the change effort.
As has been shown, gendered constraints and opportunities in agriculture are very contextspecific and vary within and across regions and countries. Using the theory of change approach can be a useful operational tool in social change interventions that are aimed at promoting gender equity and women’s empowerment. Assumptions about specific gender outcomes can be questioned and particular risks and opportunities entailed in certain actions can be outlined. Finally, indicators of the desired changes can be identified.
4.5.2 Developing M&E indicators Measuring gender inequality requires using a variety of indicators (both quantitative and qualitative) to monitor changes in gender relations.
Ideally indicators should be identified in dialogue with all programmes’ stakeholders in the context of a TOC – tapping into local knowledge is more cost effective than implementing complex indicator frameworks and avoids over-collection and under-utilisation of information. A number of core questions should guide indicator selection. These questions are not indicators themselves but may surface hidden assumptions about women’s roles. If these questions raise issues related to the overall success of a programme, they are
important areas to develop and track indicators against. Some examples of questions are:
What are the major productive activities and reproductive activities for which women and men, girls and boys are responsible? Is the programme changing this gender division of labour? If so, how and for what activities/decision-making roles?
Who makes decisions about what within the household? Is the process of decisionmaking changing as a result of the programme? If so, how?
Do nutritional levels differ by gender and age?
For more in-depth discussion on how to integrate gender into M&E in agriculture, see ALINe 2010.
Does the programme strengthen or weaken women’s access to productive resources and services relative to men’s?
Do women and men face differential barriers to entry into paid employment and different terms of work?
How much of the work of transportation to the market is done by women and for which products? Are there gender differences between selling in local markets and long distance trading? How is information about prices acquired?
Does the programme strengthen or weaken women’s ability to participate in community and farmer organisations as members, managers or leaders? Is the programme changing men’s attitudes towards women’s participation in the public domain?
The specific indicators that best capture the gender-related changes brought about by an intervention need to be decided on a case by case basis. All of these questions can potentially be investigated through carefully designed feedback systems, to hear directly from women and men what they see as the constraints, opportunities and changes they face. Feedback systems typically combine qualitative and quantitative measures, with ‘hard to measure’ areas like decision-making, confidence and attitudes being quantified by using perception-based indicators44. Disaggregating data from indicators (perception and quantitative) for women and men allow gendered impacts to be monitored. For instance, women can be invited to identify assessment criteria for monitoring programme success.
Then their ‘satisfaction’ can be consistently monitored and reported. Sensitively implemented, these processes can generate not only powerful information for decisionmakers, but also contribute to gender transformation, as women gain confidence and belief that their views matter.
4.5.3 Human resources and M&E Programme staff should have sufficient support (internal support as well as access to specialist external knowledge) to integrate a gender aware or gender transformative approach, such as through specific gender training. It should be noted that experience shows that staff without gender expertise often find it easier to operate within a gender aware approach rather than a transformative one, so extra effort is needed if the initiative aims to be transformative. This should go beyond training to developing lines of accountability through the programme hierarchy for gender.
Where possible, M&E teams should be multi-disciplinary, including gender, environment, risk specialists and sociologists/anthropologists as well as economists. In some specific socio-economic contexts women enumerators are the only ones who can reach women programme participants. In other cases, both female and male enumerators can be involved, provided they have both received adequate gender training.
Perception-based indicators are indicators that are monitored using data that summarises the perceptions of different stakeholders (rather than attempting to measure objective attributes of change). For further details see Jacobs et al 2010.
5 Practical actions for improving gender equity in P4P In this section the various practical actions identified in the Occasional Paper II are presented within the context of the framework of gender blind, gender aware and gender transformative. Current examples from the literature and the ALINe field work conducted in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Guatemala are used to illustrate what works and how. Within this the opportunities, constraints and risks that need to be seized or addressed in order to replicate and scale up these good practices within the specific context of P4P are assessed.
Annex 2 lists some global and regional partners for the implementation of these actions.
Gender sensitisation45 5.1 The P4P Occasional Paper II states, ‘without specific attention to gender issues programmes and projects are likely to reinforce inequalities between women and men and may even increase resource imbalances’ (WFP 2010c). Project staff and participants should have sufficient support (internal and specialist external knowledge) to integrate a gender aware or gender transformative approach. This can be done through specific gender training or other types of actions that aim to sensitise women and men to gender issues.
5.1.1 General constraints
The barriers to gender sensitisation are several, and overlapping:
Resistance to change. The real barrier to gender sensitisation is the resistance to social change within formal and informal institutions. Many programmes or initiatives are eager to embrace gender equity, but have very little understanding of how culture works in context. Any approach needs to be inclusive of formal or informal institutions, and work with them (SIGI 2009; Kandiyoti 1988).
Resource and time constraints. Most gender sensitisation consists of participatory training sessions. Women’s restricted mobility, multiple domestic chores and financial dependency make it difficult for women to attend training (see sections below).
5.1.2 Existing approaches Four approaches to gender sensitisation in development programmes / initiatives have been
Holistic. Holistic approaches target women, girls, men and boys, and develop different strategies to deal with the different groups. The 1995 UN World Conference on Women drew attention to government commitment to encouraging men and women to participate in actions towards equality. Organisations have implemented more holistic gender sensitisation approaches gradually. This has been facilitated by the transition from the ‘Women in Development’ (WID) to the ‘Gender and Development’ (GAD) framework. Many programmes that still focus on women tend to ignore the systemic nature of the root causes of inequalities. Oxfam has been an innovator in this space. In 2002 Oxfam launched the Gender Equality and Men project, a joint initiative between two Oxfam programmes: the UK Poverty Programme, and the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and CIS region, with funding from Oxfam and the UK Department for To avoid confusion with the gender framework, the term has been changed from ‘gender awareness training’ to ‘gender sensitisation’.
International Development (DFID). The project began by promoting and facilitating the conceptualisation of gender frameworks that would include men, as well as women, in gender sensitisation. It was then followed by a range of activities in different countries that served to refine the frameworks and tools conceptualised (Ruxton 2004). Other examples include CARE Austria (2009), and Promundo, in Brazil.
Women-focused. These approaches target only women and girls. They can be very comprehensive in terms of the activities that they provide and the tools and frameworks available. Like holistic approaches, these approaches also tend to favour work with partners that have influence in other areas, such as policy and advocacy. While womenfocused gender sensitisation can achieve good progress at policy level, not much is likely to be achieved at community level. This is because men and boys in the community are excluded. Women may become more aware of their unequal position, better equipped to identify discriminatory situations, laws, cultural practices and actions, but their status in the community remains the same because men’s attitudes towards gender inequality remains the same. These approaches are more characteristic within the WID framework.
Activity-focused. These approaches refer to programmes that have incorporated some gender awareness dimensions, often gender training. They are not consequential, i.e.
these approaches do not necessarily aim to facilitate and promote women’s empowerment, transformation at the level of policy, or the community. They often aim to fulfil the requirements of donors.
Sensitisation beyond training. Gender sensitisation approaches often equate to training.
Training is an activity that implies teaching something new to students by providing skills they did not possess before. However, gender sensitisation as a concept draws on Paulo Freire’s theories of consciousness raising and participation in education. Gender sensitisation is participatory. It is characterised by a facilitator that guides a process in which participants identify situations, practices, policies, laws, and attitudes that promote gender discrimination. Gender sensitisation activities other than training may encompass the promotion of teamwork between men and women, e.g. in community kitchens or community urban gardens, where men and women have similar tasks and learn to appreciate and value each other’s contributions. Another type of activity is men’s self-help groups, which are based on support rather than competition and work with men and boys to develop a language of emotions and skills for empathy.
5.1.3 Opportunities Gender sensitisation for women and men presents and opens up opportunities for women’s integration into markets and their eventual empowerment. These are mediated through
processes at several levels:
Household. Women gain a different status within the household. Gender sensitisation that encourages the participation of men and boys, has the potential to change family dynamics and the relations of power within the household. Through changing these dynamics, women are more likely to participate on more equal terms in the process of decision-making and it can enable them to negotiate better with husbands about their possible integration into market activities.
Personal development. Women may be more likely to invest in their personal development. They gain new aspirations and ambitions, and this opens the way to an increased interest in other types of economic activities and training to support this, specifically professional and literacy training.
Community and society. Women become more self-confident and able to break through the ‘glass-ceilings’. Hence they feel more empowered to speak out in public, set up a business, or take on leadership positions in their communities or within institutions and organisations.
Intergenerational. Inequality starts to be tackled earlier, and across generations.