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«Women-only focus group discussion in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. 17 August 2011 i Version 1 – August 2011 Contents Abbreviations and Acronyms Executive ...»

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ESRC Research Group on Wellbeing in Developing Countries, available http://www.bath.ac.uk/socpol/welldev/research/aims.htm.

Annex 2: Proposed partners for the P4P Global Gender Strategy This annex includes some global or regional organisations and initiatives that could potentially support the implementation of the Global Gender Strategy.

This list does not include country-level partners as COs are best suited to investigate appropriate partners at the local level to match their needs, after a gender assessment. The list includes only those organisations and initiatives that are well known to ALINe, ensuring that the credibility and capacity of potential partners is assured.

IFAD and FAO IFAD and FAO have a number of individual and joint initiatives on gender that WFP would

benefit from engaging with:

Capacity-building and Knowledge Management for Gender Equality:

In a joint initiative, FAO and IFAD are implementing a two-year programme to enhance regional capacity building and knowledge management on gender, agriculture and rural livelihoods. The programme, supported by a $1.5 million IFAD grant, will build and share knowledge related to the integration of a gender perspective into the work done by, or supported by, the two organisations. The wiki has a number of relevant resources and case studies that P4P could draw on. http://genderlearning.wikispaces.com/

IFAD and FAO: Gender Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa:

Labour Saving Technologies and Practices for Farming and Household Activities in Eastern and Southern Africa (http://www.sarpn.org.za/mitigation_of_HIV_AIDS/m0012/index.php) ILO COOPAfrica The Cooperative Facility for Africa - COOPAfrica - is a technical cooperation programme for the promotion of cooperative development in Africa. From the ILO Office in Dar-es-Salaam, COOPAfrica covers so far 9 countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Botswana, Mosotho, Swaziland and Zambia) with support of the ILO Cooperative Programme in Geneva. COOPAfrica aims to help people to co-operate out of poverty as well as to deal with the cooperative needs, such as has been identified in CoopAfrica's preliminary research project, Research for a Cooperative Facility for Africa. Together with a wide range of international and national partners, COOPAfrica promotes an enabling legal and policy environment, effective cooperative unions and federations as well as demanddriven services for cooperatives. COOPAfrica has used its open financing mechanism to extended grants to 28 cooperatives, mutual assistance organisations and their partners to meet different objectives in the development of cooperatives. COOPAfrica has a strong gender component. ALINe has links to COOPAfrica through Jennie Dey de Pryck (independent reviewer of this report), who has supported COOPAfrica on gender issues.

http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/ent/coop/africa/index.htm ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) ILRI works in East, Southern and West Africa on livestock issues in agriculture. Research at ILRI has a strong gender component and much of it is focused on supporting marketoriented agriculture for women. There are a number of particular initiatives that WFP could

link to, particularly if some COs are interested in widening the menu of food procured:

Improving the Productivity and Market success of Ethiopian Farmers (IPMS) supports technology uptake for increased market-oriented agriculture for smallholder farmers and pastoralists. This project takes an extremely structured approach to the introduction of technology, in order to ensure women’s equal access to it. The programme developed a gender strategy, based on the recognition that first and foremost it was necessary to understand the gender context in order to identify opportunities for supporting gender equality in the context of market-driven agricultural development. This strategy was built on the thorough understanding of gender roles in agriculture; on the identification of the barriers to both men’s and women’s participation in the market; and of the actions that have the potential to increase participation (Aregu et al 2010).

http://www.ipms-ethiopia.org/default.asp The Gender, Agriculture and Assets Project (GAAP) is an initiative with IFPRI that aims to increase the impacts of agricultural development programmes in reducing gender inequalities, asset disparities, and improving rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia.

ALINe has links to ILRI through Yvonne Pinto, who sits on the Advisory Committee of GAAP.

Oxfam Grow. Sell. Thrive: Women economic leadership in agricultural markets. Researching women’s collective action This is an Oxfam GB run, BMGF funded, two-year research, learning and communications programme that is gathering evidence on how women smallholders' collective action in markets across a range of agricultural sectors in Ethiopia, Mali and Tanzania, can improve their incomes, strengthen their assets and increase empowerment. Best practices and innovations of development actors that support women’s effective collective action will also be identified by in-depth case studies. Oxfam, working with KIT, is currently undertaking value chain analysis of sub-sectors where there is potential for women to graduate from subsistence to market-oriented agriculture. ALINe/IDS has links to this initiative through Sally Smith (consultant for the IDS/BRIDGE work with WFP’s Gender Service), who is a member of the Advisory Committee. http://womenscollectiveaction.com/ Gender Action Learning System The Gender Action Learning System (GALS) methodology is a key part of Oxfam Novib’s Women’s Empowerment Mainstreaming And Networking (WEMAN) programme for gender justice in economic development interventions, including market and value chain development, financial services and economic policy and decision-making. GALS is a community-led empowerment methodology, which aims at ‘constructive economic, social





and political transformation’ on gender justice. The manual can be found here:

http://www.wemanglobal.org/documents/Vision/Tree%20of%20diamond%20dreams.pdf UNDP Multifunctional Platform Programme (MFP) The Multifunctional Platform Programme (MFP) is a concept and structure developed by UNDP. It consists of a diesel engine and various associated tools: grinding mills, huskers, alternators, battery chargers, pumps, welding stations, and carpentry equipment that can be used to distribute water and electricity. The MFP Programme operates in several countries in West Africa, including Burkina Faso, Mali, Ghana, Senegal as well as in in Tanzania and Zambia, and has been shown as an effective labour-saving technology for women. ALINe/IDS has links to this initiative through Alyson Brody (team leader of the IDS/BRIDGE work with WFP’s Gender Service), who investigated the MFP programme in Mali for ALINe in 2009.

WOCAN (Women for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management) ‘Gender Mainstreaming to Build Institutional Accountability to Women Farmers’ WOCAN is a women-led global network of professional women and men engaged in agriculture and natural resource management, who are committed to organisational change for gender equality and environmentally sustainable development. WOCAN is particularly experienced in what they call ‘Gender Mainstreaming to Build Institutional Accountability to Women Farmers’. This approach uses participatory adult learning methodologies to encourage participants to deeply reflect on and analyse societal and organisational norms and conditions. WOCAN could be a useful partner for gender sensitisation activities. WOCAN has a regional office in West Africa. http://www.wocan.org/ Annex 3: References African Development Fund (2005) Women’s Entrepreneurship and Skills Development for Food Security: Pilot Project Appraisal Report, Mozambique http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/MZEN-ADF-BD-WP-MOZAMBIQUE-AR-WOMEN-ENTREPRENEURSHIP-AND-SKILLSDEVEL.PDF Agarwal, B. (2003) ‘Gender and Land Rights Revisited: Exploring New Prospects via the State,

Family and Market’, in S. Razavi (ed) Agrarian change, gender and land rights, Oxford:

Blackwell http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oRBkn2_BbVYC&lpg=PA184&ots=jMBRFlMtXy&dq=Ag arwal%20deccan%20development%202003&lr&pg=PA184#v=onepage&q&f=false Ahikire, J.; Ampaire, C. and Madanda, A. (2010) ‘Changing Fortunes: Women’s Economic Opportunities in Post-War Northern Uganda’, International Alert, (3) http://www.international-alert.org/resources/publications/changing-fortunes Alderman, H.; Hoddinott, J.; Haddad, L. and Udry, C. (1995) Gender differentials in farm productivity: Implications for household efficiency and agricultural policy, Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper 6, Washington: International Food Policy Research Institute http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/pubs_divs_fcnd_dp_papers_dp06.pdf ALINe (forthcoming) Farmer Voice Awards: African Farm Radio Research Initiative Case Study, ALINe Farmer Voice Awards 2010, Brighton: IDS ALINe (2011) Agricultural Productivity, Report to Bill and Melinda Gates Agricultural Development Programme, Agricultural Learning and Impacts Network, Brighton: IDS ALINe (2010) A Guide to Integrating Gender into Monitoring and Evaluation, Draft for review, Brighton: IDS http://www.aline.org.uk/pool/integrating-gender-into-m&e-10nov10.pdf Anandajayasekeram, P.; Puskur, R.; Workneh, S. and Hoekstra, D. (2008) ‘Concepts and practices in agricultural extension in developing countries: A source book’, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C., USA, and International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 275 Aregu, L.; Puskur, R. and Renard, G. (2011) Empowering women through value chain development: Good practices and lessons from Improving Productivity and Market Success experiences, Mahider research repository, International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa: ILRI http://mahider.ilri.org/bitstream/10568/3099/1/AgriGenderleaflet2011.pdf Aregu, L.; Bishop-Sambrook, C.; Puskur, R. and Tesema, E. (2010) Opportunities for promoting gender equality in rural Ethiopia through the commercialization of agriculture, Improving Productivity and Market Success Working Paper 18, Addis Ababa: International Livestock Research Institute http://mahider.ilri.org/bitstream/10568/1788/1/IPMS_Working_Paper_18_Optimised.pdf Baden, S. (1998) ‘Gender issues in agricultural market liberalisation,’ BRIDGE Report No. 41, Brighton: IDS Badiru, I. O. (2010) Review of Small Farmer Access to Agricultural Credit in Nigeria, International Food Policy Research Institute Policy Note No. 25, Nigeria Strategy Support Program http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/nssppn25.pdf Barasa, C. (1999) Poultry as a Tool in poverty Eradication and Promotion of Gender Equality, Gender and Poverty – Agriculture Sector Programme Support in Uganda. Proceedings of a Workshop 22-26 March, Tune Landboskole, Denmark http://www.ardaf.org/NR/rdonlyres/E36C8F7A-381F-4291-917BFA216F664/0/199921Barasa.pdf Benfica, R.; Ofosu-Amaah, A.W. and Tehmeh, A. (undated) Gender-Aware Programs and Women’s Role in Agricultural Value Chains in Liberia, Washington: World Bank http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTGENDER/Resources/LibSum-fin-rev1.pdf Bishop-Sambrook, C.; Kienzle, J.; Ribero, F.; Mariki, W. and Owenya, M. (2002) Suitability of

reduced tillage and cover crops as labour saving practices for vulnerable households, Rome:

International Fund for Agricultural Development/ Food and Agricultural Organization Bizzarri, M. (2009) Women Farmers in Latin America and the Caribbean – Mission Report, 25 July-13 August, Report to WFP Bolzani, D.; de Villard, S. and Dey de Pryck, J. (with Peter Wobst) (2010) Agricultural value chain development: Threat or opportunity for women’s employment?, Gender and Rural Employment Policy Brief No. 4, Food and Agricultural Organization http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2008e/i2008e04.pdf BRIDGE/IDS (2011) ‘Draft Gender Framework for World Food Programme work’, mimeo Brown, L (2008) ‘Women Make Income Gains by Shifting from Subsistence to Cash Crops’ Development Outreach, World Bank Institute http://elibrary.worldbank.org/docserver/download/1020797x-10-3-20pdf?expires=1308139201&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=6DAE5E5FFA678C49DB8AC 8D38756C31F Brumer, A. (2004) Gênero e agricultura : a situação da mulher na agricultura do Rio Grande do Sul, Revista de Estudos Feministas, vol. 12, n. 1, 2004, p. 205/227 Buechler, S. J. (2004) ‘Women at the helm of irrigated agriculture in Mexico: The other side of male migration’ in V. Bennett, S. Dávila-Poblete and M. Nieves Rico (eds), Swimming

Against the Current: Gender and Water in Latin America, Pittsburgh University Press:

Pittsburgh, PA Buvinic, M., Médici, A., Fernández, E. & Torres, A.C. (2006) Gender differentials in health, in D.T. Jamison, J.G. Breman, A.R. Measham, G. Alleyne, M. Claeson, D.B. Evans, P. Jha, A.

Mills & P. Musgrove (eds.) Disease control priorities in developing countries, New York:

Oxford University Press Byrne, B. (1994) Gender profile of Zambia, Bridge Report No. 29, Brighton: IDS http://old.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/re29c.pdf Caldeira, R. (2009) The failed marriage between women and the landless people's movement (MST) in Brazil, Journal of International Women's Studies, Volume 10, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 237-258 Captain, Y. (2011) Women's Organizations in West Africa: A Gender Difference? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference ‘Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition’, Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 16 March http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p499237_index.html CARE (2009) CARE Österreich’s approach to Gender & Women’s Empowerment (July), Vienna: CARE http://expert.care.at/downloads/careexpert/COe_ConceptualApproach_GenderEqualityWE.

pdf Carneiro, M.J.(2001) Herança e gênero entre agricultores familiares. Estudos Feministas 9, 1, pp. 22–57

Carney, J. (2000) The African origins of Carolina rice culture, Cultural Geographies 2000 7:

Carney, J. and Watts, M. (1990) ‘Manufacturing Dissent: Work, Gender and the Politics of

Meaning in a Peasant Society’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 60.2:



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