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«Objectives This course offers an introduction to the economic history of the Middle East from the advent of Islam fourteen centuries ago to the ...»

ECONOMIC HISTORY AND MODERNIZATION

OF THE ISLAMIC MIDDLE EAST

Duke University

Economics 195S.44, Political Science 199BS.44

Fall 2007

Timur Kuran

Classes: Monday and Wednesday, 6:00 - 7:15 PM, 319 Gray

Offices: 234 Social Sciences Building and 303A Perkins Library

Office hours: Wednesday 1:00 - 3:00 at 234 Social Sciences

Electronic mail: t.kuran@duke.edu ! Telephone: 660-1872, 660-4302 Web page: http://econ.duke.edu/~tk43 Objectives This course offers an introduction to the economic history of the Middle East from the advent of Islam fourteen centuries ago to the modern era. It has four main objectives. First of all, it will familiarize you with the institutions that have governed the pace and characteristics of economic development in the region. Second, it will examine particular transformations and selected cases of inertia to derive lessons about the mechanisms that govern economic development and modernization in general. As such, it will provide insights applicable to other regions of the world, in both the past and present. Third, the course will investigate how religion shaped the region’s economic transformation; in particular, it will identify the mechanisms through which Islam may have contributed to specific historical patterns, including periods of economic dynamism and the region’s slip, around the 18th century, into a state of economic underdevelopment from which it has yet to recover. Fourth, the course will identify the social forces driving the contemporary rediscovery and reinterpretation of Islam, partly under the rubric of Islamism, also known as Islamic fundamentalism.

The course is organized around topics that present intellectual puzzles, including ones that have preoccupied scholars for generations. Within each topic the goal is to learn not just what happened but also, and more important, why the region’s economic history unfolded as it did. In other words, the emphasis is on analysis rather than description. In pursuit of our analytical goal, we will draw comparisons with other parts of the world, including western Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and East Asia.

Class sessions We will meet twice a week. Although attendance is not mandatory, regular attendance is essential to success in the course. Because there is no main textbook, only by attending lectures regularly, and participating in discussions, will you be able to master the topics to be discussed. In any case, the lectures and discussion will go beyond the readings, and they will contain ideas unavailable through published sources. By the same token, keeping up with the readings is essential to following the lectures. The lectures cannot cover everything discussed in assigned readings, and I will assume that you have read and understood the reading assignments.

Discussion and debate enhances the learning process, so students are encouraged to ask questions and offer opinions. I will often start a topic, in fact, by challenging the class to anticipate key mechanisms, relationships, or outcomes, or to suggest analytical approaches to cracking the historical puzzle at hand. At times, it may be necessary to limit discussion in the interest of maintaining the pace of the course and covering key concepts. When we are short of time, and multiple students want to speak, those who have spoken less will have priority.

Audiotaping or videotaping of the class sessions is not allowed.

Prerequisite, exams, grading Economic Principles (Econ 51D) is a prerequisite for this course. Requirements include an in-class midterm exam (October 10), a final examination (December 16, 7-10 PM), and a 15-page paper due before reading period, on December 7. The course grade will be based on a weighted average of the tests, paper, and class performance: (0.20 ) (midterm grade) + (0.40) (final grade) + (0.30) (paper grade) + (0.10) (classroom performance).

Taking the exams is mandatory. The time of the tests cannot be moved for anyone, except for a documented grave emergency (e.g., death in the family, hospitalization, illness requiring immediate attention of a physician). Unacceptable excuses for missing a test include: athletic function, malfunctioning automobile, job interview, temperamental alarm clock, non-refundable airline ticket, and uncooperative weather. Special arrangements may be made for disabled students working through Disabilities Services (668-1267).

Exams will be graded with care for analytical sophistication, originality, accuracy, coherence, clarity, and comprehensiveness. No credit will be given for repeating a question, and penalties will be imposed for invoking facts or theories irrelevant to the question at hand. Requests for regrading will be accepted, but only if accompanied by a clear and written justification for the request. Regrading will not be limited to the specific question whose scoring is being challenged. The entire exam will be regraded, and the exam score may go up or down.

Readings Few textbooks have been written on the economic history of the Middle East, and those in print, though useful, are insufficiently analytical for the purposes of this course. Most of the selected readings thus consist of journal articles and book chapters, of which most are included in a reader available through the Duke Textbook Store. Four books, each of which we shall cover in part, are also available at the Textbook Store: El-Gamal, Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice;





Kuran, Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism; Lewis, What Went Wrong?

Western Impact and the Middle Eastern Response; and Owen, The Middle East in the World Economy, 1800-1914.

Authors of the readings include not only economists but also political scientists, legal scholars, and historians. The readings have been selected partly to familiarize you with a variety of research techniques used to study the past: (1) archival data collection, (2) empirical testing, (3) textual criticism, and especially (4) institutional analysis.

Certain readings will address politically controversial and socially sensitive issues from multiple angles. Within the time constraints of the course, you will gain exposure to competing perspectives through influential writings of their leading exponents.

The required readings are starred. The rest are highly recommended. Depending on student interest, minor adjustments may be made to this reading list.

–  –  –

I. PUZZLES OF MIDDLE EASTERN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Charles Issawi, “The Modern Middle East in the World Context,” in The Middle East Economy:

Decline and Recovery, by the author (Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1995), pp. 1-30.

*Maxime Rodinson, Islam and Capitalism, trans. Brian Pearce (New York: Pantheon, 1972; orig.

French ed. 1966), pp. 1-57 + 68-75 (pp. 76-117 recommended).

*Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response (New York:

Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 3-81.

*Sayyid Abul-Ala Mawdudi, Nations Rise and Decline—Why? (Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1976;

orig. Urdu ed., 1947).

Timur Kuran, “Islam and Underdevelopment: An Old Puzzle Revisited,” chap. 6 in Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).

II. MEDIEVAL MIDDLE EASTERN ECONOMY

*K. N. Chaudhuri, Trade and Civilization in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985), chap. 2 (chap. 1 recommended).

*Abraham L. Udovitch, “Bankers without Banks: Commerce, Banking, and Society in the Islamic World of the Middle Ages,” in The Dawn of Modern Banking, edited by the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, UCLA (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), pp.

255-73.

*Abraham L. Udovitch, “Islamic Law and the Social Context of Exchange in the Medieval Middle East,” History and Anthropology, 1 (1985): 445-65.

Hassan S. Khalilieh, Islamic Maritime Law: An Introduction (Leiden: Brill, 1998), pp. 1-87.

III. INSTITUTIONAL STAGNATION: TRADE AND FINANCE

Edwin S. Hunt and James M. Murray, A History of Business in Medieval Europe 1200-1550 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), chap. 5.

*Timur Kuran, “The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East,” Journal of Economic History, 63 (2003): 414-46.

*David S. Powers, “The Islamic Inheritance System: A Socio-Historical Approach,” in Islamic Family Law, edited by Chibli Mallat and Jane Connors (London: Graham and Trotman, 1990), pp. 11-29.

Henry Hansmann, Reinier Kraakman, and Richard Squire. “Law and the Rise of the Firm.” Harvard Law Review, 119 (2006): 1335-1403.

*Timur Kuran, “The Absence of the Corporation in Islamic Law: Origins and Persistence,” American Journal of Comparative Law, 53 (2005): 785-834.

Süleyman Özmucur and ªevket Pamuk, “Real Wages and Standard of Living in the Ottoman Empire, 1489-1914,” Journal of Economic History, 62 (2002): 293-321.

IV. CHOICE OF LAW: ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

Charles Issawi, “The Transformation of the Economic Position of the Millets in the Nineteenth Century,” in Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, ed. Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis, volume 1 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1982), pp. 261-85.

*Najwa Al-Qattan, “Dhimmis in Muslim Court: Legal Autonomy and Religious Discrimination,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 31 (1999): 429-44.

Mark R. Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews of the Middle Ages (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), pp. 77-103.

*Timur Kuran, “The Economic Ascent of the Middle East’s Religious Minorities: The Role of Islamic Legal Pluralism,” Journal of Legal Studies, 33 (2004): 475-515 *Ronald C. Jennings, “Loans and Credit in early 17th Century Ottoman Judicial Records: the Sharia Court of Anatolian Kayseri,” in Studies in Ottoman Social History in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Istanbul: ISIS Press, 1999), pp. 201-46. [Note: fine-printed pages with additional cases omitted from reader] Hanna, Nelly. Making Big Money in 1600: The Life and Times of Isma%il Abu Taqiyya, Egyptian Merchant. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1998.

V. PROVISION OF PUBLIC GOODS: STATIC AND DYNAMIC EFFECTS

David E. Van Zandt, “The Lessons of the Lighthouse: ‘Government’ or ‘Private’ Provision of Goods,” Journal of Legal Studies, 22 (1993): 42-72.

*Timur Kuran, “The Provision of Public Goods under Islamic Law: Origins, Impact, and Limitations of the Waqf System,” Law and Society Review, 35 (2001): 841-97.

*Jon E. Mandaville, “Usurious Piety: The Cash Waqf Controversy in the Ottoman Empire,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10 (1979): 289-308.

VI. PROPERTY RIGHTS AND RULE OF LAW

*Douglass C. North, “The Paradox of the West,” in The Origins of Modern Freedom in the West, edited by R. W. Davis (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995), pp. 1-34.

*Metin Coºgel and Thomas Miceli, “Risk, Transaction Costs, and Tax Assignment: Government Finance in the Ottoman Empire,” Journal of Economic History, 65 (2005): 806-21.

*Richard C. Repp, “Qânûn and Sharî#a in the Ottoman Context,” in Islamic Law: Social and Historical Contexts, ed. Aziz Al-Azmeh (London: Routledge, 1988), pp. 124-45.

*Suraiya Faroqhi, “Finances,” in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300edited by Halil Ýnalcýk with Donald Quataert (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 531-44.

Murat Çizakça, A Comparative Evolution of Business Partnerships: The Islamic World and Europe, with Special Reference to the Ottoman Archives (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996), pp. 135-59.

VII. INSTITUTIONAL MODERNIZATION

Roger Owen, The Middle East in the World Economy, 1800-1914, rev. ed. (London: I. B. Tauris, 1993), pp. 1-82.

*Timur Kuran, “The Logic of Financial Westernization in the Middle East,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 56 (2005): 593-615.

Stanford J. Shaw, “The Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Tax Reforms,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 6 (1975): 421-59.

VIII. THE ECONOMIC AGENDA OF CONTEMPORARY ISLAMISM

M. Umer Chapra, “Islamic Economic Thought and the New Global Economy,” Islamic Economic Studies, 9 (2001): 1-16.

*Masudul Alam Choudhury, “Principles of Islamic Economics,” in Political Economy of the Middle East, vol. 3, edited by Tim Niblock and Rodney Wilson (Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar, 1999), pp. 1-11.

*Mahmoud A. El-Gamal, Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice (Cambridge: cambridge University Press, 2006), chaps. 1-2, 6-8.

Fazlur Rahman, “Islam and the Problem of Economic Justice,” Pakistan Economist, 14 (August 24 1974): 14-39.

*Timur Kuran, Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), chaps. 1, 4.

*Timur Kuran, “Islamic Redistribution Through Zakat: Historical Record and Modern Realities,” in Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, ed. Michael Bonner, Mine Ener, and Amy Singer, pp. 275-93 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003), pp. 275-93.

Sohrab Behdad, “Disputed Utopia: Islamic Economics in Revolutionary Iran,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 36 (1994): 775-813.

United Nations Development Programme, Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab Human Development Report 2002 (New York: United Nations, 2002), overview + chaps 2, 4, 5 required, rest recommended.

Clement M. Henry and Robert Springborg, Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).





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