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«Historic Resources Survey Report Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area Prepared for: City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning Office of Historic ...»

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The land upon which Harbor Gateway CPA developed was occupied by several ranchos in the earliest period after European settlement. There are no resources remaining from this period in the CPA. The earliest residential development is scattered throughout the CPA, but it occurs with slightly more frequency in the northern portion. Single-family residences dating from the 1910s and 1920s are the most numerous in the vicinity of Gardena Boulevard. Much of the land in the strip was originally devoted to farmland. The postSurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area World War II era, and the increase in the area’s population, brought about a need for housing. Infill development occurred at this time, and whole neighborhoods were developed in the 1940s and 1950s in the CPA.

The CPA is largely comprised of single-family residential neighborhoods, which followed a typical development pattern with commercial corridors along larger streets and singlefamily residential development along smaller, gridded streets between. Much of this development occurred during and after World War II, when factories moved into the area and workers, who needed housing, followed. The dominant housing type in the area until the 1980s was the single-family residence and the multi-family residential duplex. Multifamily residential development is not as common as single-family residential development;

the majority of the larger scale multi-family residential development dates from the 1980s, when the population of the area experienced a second dramatic increase. It largely occurs along major thoroughfares in the CPA.

Early commercial development occurred along the western portion of Gardena Boulevard.

This development, the majority of which includes one- to three-story commercial buildings dating from the 1910s and 1920s, was essentially an extension of the commercial strip that developed in Gardena, a separate city, to the west. Later commercial development along major thoroughfares includes drive-in commercial strips and one- to three-story commercial buildings. The majority of these resources date from the 1950s, 1960s, and later.

Development in the southern portion of the CPA, in the vicinity of 190th Street and south, largely occurred during the population boom of the post-World War II era. Its development follows similar patterns as the northern portion of the CPA, comprising mostly singlefamily neighborhoods with commercial properties and multi-family residences located on major thoroughfares. Single-family residential development dates from the 1940s, 1950s, and later. There is very little early development from the 1910s and 1920s in this portion of the CPA. This portion of the CPA developed in the 1940s and 1950s when industrial development in the area increased.

Industrial development, originally dating from the World War II and post-war eras, is concentrated in the southern portion of the CPA. Much of this earlier development has been replaced by later industrial construction.

Most residential streets roughly follow a north-south and east-west grid but incorporate a curvilinear pattern, terminating in cul-de-sacs and often not accessible from major thoroughfares. Residential lots are long and narrow or somewhat triangular shaped, depending on their location along gridded or curvilinear streets. Commercial development was laid out to accommodate the streetcar and, later, the automobile.

Institutional resources occurring throughout the CPA include religious buildings and schools, though few were recorded as eligible resources. These resources are typically sited within residential neighborhoods or along commercial corridors.

SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area There is a significant amount of industrial development in the CPA, and there are large portions of land zoned for industrial use along the eastern boundary of the CPA on Figueroa Street, in the vicinity of 190th Street and Del Amo Boulevard, and along the southern boundary of the CPA on Sepulveda Boulevard.1

Designated Resources

There are no previously designated resources within the Harbor Gateway CPA. This takes into consideration properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places (NR) or the California Register of Historical Resources (CR), as well as locally-designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments (HCM) and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones (HPOZ). For the most up-to-date information on designated resources contact the Office of Historic Resources.

Community Plan Area Survey Methodology The field survey of the Harbor Gateway CPA was conducted using the methodology established by the Office of Historic Resources for SurveyLA, which includes the citywide Historic Context Statement and customized mobile Field Guide Survey System (FiGSS).2 A number of other community plan areas were being surveyed concurrently with the Harbor Gateway CPA. Prior to commencing fieldwork in Harbor Gateway, the project managers of these CPAs coordinated to conduct a group reconnaissance of each area.

Project managers included Christy McAvoy of Historic Resources Group, Leslie Heumann of Sapphos Environmental, Inc., and Teresa Grimes of Galvin Preservation Associates. The purpose of this group reconnaissance was to establish consistency among the various survey areas, specifically regarding the application of the historic context statement and establishment of integrity thresholds. Following this group reconnaissance, each team developed a work plan specific to their survey area.

Thus far, most of the CPAs have been surveyed in two phases: Identification and Documentation. Due to the relatively small size of the survey area, it was determined that a two-phased approach was not necessary. The survey was conducted by a team of two qualified survey professionals, both of whom meet the Secretary of the Interior’s Professional Qualifications Standards. The team remained the same during the course of the survey to ensure consistency in which properties and districts should be documented, and how those properties should be evaluated. In addition to properties identified by the survey team, properties that were included in the pre-loaded data in FiGSS, were studied for potential historic, cultural, or architectural significance.

As mentioned earlier in this report, industrially-zoned properties were not surveyed as part of this project. They will be surveyed at a later date.

For more information about the SurveyLA methodology, see the SurveyLA Field Results Master Report.

SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area Pre-field research was conducted to help acquaint surveyors with the CPA, using GPA’s inhouse library of books, periodicals and journals related to the architecture, history and development of Los Angeles, as well as online sources such as the California Index, available through the Los Angeles Public Library. Other online sources included websites devoted to the history and location air raid sirens in Los Angeles and the history of Japantowns in California. Additional research was conducted at the Gardena branch of the County of Los Angeles Public Library.

A key component of pre-field online research focused on the history of Japantowns in California. The study, the results of which are posted online, documented Japantowns in California in 1940, prior to the internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans during World War II.3 A portion of the study focused on Gardena and also featured Harbor Gateway. The study mapped Japanese-owned businesses in the area and included the name of the business at each address in 1940. This information was utilized during subsequent fieldwork; it was found that the majority of resources no longer remain.

The field surveys were conducted from the public right-of-way. Documentation included a digital photograph, recordation of historic features and subsequent alterations, and the reason for a property’s potential historic significance. Historic districts were mapped out during the survey, and then further evaluated and edited after an intensive survey in the field. Following the completion of field work, all survey data was reviewed in detail by a qualified survey professional to ensure accuracy and consistency throughout.

Research was ongoing during and after the field surveys, as supplemental research tasks were identified to assist with resource evaluations. Research tasks included propertyspecific research such as acquiring original building permits in order to determine original owner and architect/builder, as well as dates of construction, and tax assessor research to confirm dates of construction and original owners.

Summary of Findings The following discussion of Property Types, Contexts, and Themes relates to the resources identified and recorded as eligible for designation.

Summary of Property Types The Harbor Gateway CPA is largely comprised of single-family residential neighborhoods.

Although a variety of other property types exist, the patterns of development in this area were conducive to widespread single-family residential development. Early 20th century residences are interspersed throughout the CPA and would have been surrounded by farmland.

A link to the website is: http://www.californiajapantowns.org/survey/index.php/component/mtree/los-angelesregion/gardena; a map can be found at: http://www.japantownatlas.com/map-gardena.html.

SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area Residential Properties Many of the residential buildings in the CPA have endured alterations over time, such as replacement doors and windows, stucco finish over original wall cladding materials, and the removal of features such as window surrounds and trim. Due to a preponderance of such alterations, only one eligible historic district was identified in the CPA. No planning districts were recorded in the CPA.

The Chacksfield Residential Historic District was identified as being eligible in the context of post-World War II suburbanization and for its reflection of the changing demographics of the Harbor Gateway CPA during that period. It conveyed its significance as representative of the Traditional Ranch House style, possessing a unique collection of consistent Japanese-style gardens, and retaining character-defining features of a postWorld War II single-family residential neighborhood, such as curvilinear streets, consistent setbacks, and narrow lots.

Multi-family residences exist in the survey area as well; generally, they are intermittently located along major thoroughfares in the CPA. The majority date from the 1980s, when the area experienced a rapid population increase.4 They are generally larger, low-scale buildings. No multi-family residential buildings were found to be eligible for listing at the national, state, or local levels.

Commercial Properties

Commercial property types are commonly found on major thoroughfares running northsouth and east-west through the CPA. A small number were recorded individually; those that were recorded were typically exemplary of the property type, a particular style, or representative of commercial development in the CPA. These properties included car service/gas stations, one- and two-story commercial buildings, and a garden supply store.

Other Properties Finally, a small number of non-parcel resources were identified in the CPA. These include air raid sirens and uniform street trees that appeared to date from a neighborhood’s original subdivision.

Summary of Contexts and Themes Though a small number of resources were recorded in the Harbor Gateway CPA, many of the contexts and themes of the Citywide Historic Context Statement are represented.

Following are examples of the common Contexts and Themes used in the survey and representative examples of eligible resources.

Buildings constructed after 1980 are not included in the SurveyLA.

SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area For a complete list of all individual resources identified as meeting eligibility standards and criteria for the National Register, California Register, and/or HCM/HPOZ, see Appendix A.

For a complete list of non-parcel resources identified as meeting eligibility standards and criteria for the National Register, California Register, and/or local listing, see Appendix B.

For a complete list of historic districts identified as meeting eligibility standards and criteria for the National Register, California Register, and/or HCM/HPOZ, see Appendix C.

This appendix also includes planning districts, which do not meet eligibility standards and criteria for listing but may warrant special consideration for local planning purposes.

SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area Context: Residential Development and Suburbanization, 1880-1980 Theme: Early Residential Development, 1880-1930 Sub-Theme: Early and Rare Single-Family Residential Development, 1880-1930 Resources were determined to be eligible as significant examples of early residential development within the CPA if they largely pre-date the development of surrounding neighborhoods. In the Harbor Gateway CPA, this includes rare examples of early 20th century residences. These resources represent the earliest pattern of residential development in the area. As seen below, residences recorded under this context/theme represent a variety of architectural styles, including Craftsman bungalows and vernacular cottages with hipped roofs.

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SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area Context: Commercial Development, 1850-1980 Theme: Commercial Development and the Automobile, 1910-1960s Sub-Theme: The Car and Car Services, 1910-1960s One property was recorded under this context/theme; a gas station/car service station. It dates from the 1920s and is located on a major vehicular thoroughfare. It represents early commercial development dedicated to the service and accommodation of the automobile.

Extant and intact examples of this property type were uncommon in the CPA.

Address: 762 West Gardena Boulevard Date: 1922 SurveyLA Harbor Gateway Community Plan Area Context: Commercial Development, 1850-1980 Theme: Commercial Identity, 1850-1980 One property was recorded under this context/theme, which captures properties that are significant for their association with a well-known and significant business in their community. The Yamada Company is a Japanese American owned garden supply business that moved from downtown Los Angeles to its present location on Gardena Boulevard in

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