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«Name: Richard Lawrence Castelino Date of Degree: December, 1992 Institution: Oklahoma State University Location: Stillwater, Oklahoma Title of Study: ...»

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Name: Richard Lawrence Castelino Date of Degree: December, 1992

Institution: Oklahoma State University

Location: Stillwater, Oklahoma

Title of Study: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REVISED TRANSFER FUNCTION

METHOD AND EVALUATION OF THE CLTD/SCL/CLF METHOD

Pages in Study: 158 Candidate for the Degree of

Master of Science

Major Field: Mechanical Engineering

Scope and Method: This thesis focuses mainly on the development of a load calculation software program. Technical routines for building cooling load and heat extraction rate calculations were developed based on the revised Transfer Function Method (TFM). Heating load calculation routines were also developed. The program is userinteractive, menu-driven, and works under a graphical user interface. Cooling load results obtained by the CLTD/SCL/CLF (Cooling Load Temperature Difference/Solar Cooling Load/Cooling Load Factor) method, a simplified load calculation method, were compared to those obtained by the revised TFM. Tests were carried out for three representative zones and a number of cases involving externally shaded glass areas.

Findings and Conclusions: A number of implementation and methodological differences in the two methods are pointed out and suitable corrections are suggested where applicable. The CLTD/SCL/CLF method was validated as a fairly accurate method for manual cooling load calculations. Differences in cooling loads by the two methods due to table round-off errors, interpolation for different latitudes, and calculations for dates other than the 21st using the CLTD/SCL/CLF method are small. However, significant differences in cooling loads are observed for externally shaded glass areas. It was found that the use of a north facing glass area to represent a completely shaded glass area (for the CLTD/SCL/CLF method) is not always accurate particularly for locations near the equator. It is suggested that shaded and unshaded SCLs be calculated separately for all facing directions and used for cooling load calculations. In addition, the CLTD/SCL/CLF method cannot account correctly for the past history of varying shaded/unshaded glass areas. This problem is an inherent limitation of the CLTD/SCL/CLF method.

ADVISOR'S APPROVAL__________________________________________________

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REVISED TRANSFER

FUNCTION METHOD AND EVALUATION

OF THE CLTD/SCL/CLF METHOD

By

RICHARD LAWRENCE CASTELINO

Bachelor of Engineering University of Bombay Bombay, India Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University

–  –  –

Thesis Approved :

___________________________________________

Thesis Advisor ___________________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

Dean of the Graduate College

–  –  –

A professional software program, currently called HVAC, was developed in order to calculate the cooling loads for a building based on the revised Transfer Function Method. This program, written in the C-programming language, executes under Microsoft WINDOWSTM as a user-interactive, menu driven program. In addition to cooling load calculations, the program also performs calculations of the heat extraction rates for desired zones, and the heating load for the building based upon steady state heat transfer.

The results of the CLTD/SCL/CLF Method for three test zones and other test cases of externally shaded glass areas were compared with those of the revised Transfer Function Method. Differences in the implementation and calculation methodology of the methods were pointed out and the results discussed.

I would first like to express my heart-felt gratitude to my parents, Lawrence and Florine Castelino for their undying faith in me and their relentless efforts towards ensuring a bright career for me. I attribute a major portion of my achievements to their continued support and moral encouragement. Special thanks are also due to my sisters Theresa and Claudette and my brother Placid whose prayers, friendship, and good wishes have followed me and constantly reminded me of my goals in life. I love you all.

I wish to express sincere appreciation to my major advisor Dr. Jeffrey D. Spitler for his continued guidance, patience, and inspiration during this demanding endeavor. I am grateful to my other committee member Dr. Ronald D. Delahoussaye for his help during the programming phase of the project, guiding me from obscurity to clarity, and his keen insight in offering useful suggestions and tips. I also extend my gratitude to Dr.

Faye McQuiston for serving on my committee. This thesis work is largely a result of his enormous contribution to the revised Transfer Function load calculation methodology.

Thanks are also due to Mr. Kyungho Song, my colleague on this project, a good friend, and a software programmer par excellence, whom I respect for his understanding, cooperation, and useful programming hints. Justice would not be done if I don't thank Dr.

Blayne Mayfield of the Computer Science Department whose terse and enlightened ways of teaching have helped me understand better the more challenging aspects of the C (and C++) language and perform more productively as a software developer.





This project has been funded by The Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science & Technology (OCAST). Their generous financial support throughout my course of study is greatly appreciated.

–  –  –

Program Hierarchy

Building

Zones

Rooms

Heat Gain Elements

Calculations and Output

Heating Load Calculations

V. ZONE DESCRIPTIONS

–  –  –

VII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions

Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDIXES

–  –  –

XII. Input details for the People Information dialog box at the element level

XIII. Input details for the Light Information dialog box at the element level

XIV. Input details for the Equipment Information dialog box at the element level

–  –  –

XVI. Implementation differences between the HVAC and CLTDTAB programs

–  –  –

XXI. Summary of comparison tests

XXII. Zone parameters for the Retail Store

XXIII. Categorization of the Retail Store Wall

XXIV. Categorization of the Retail Store Roof

XXV. Conduction Transfer Functions for the Wall

XXVI. Sol-Air Temperatures and Conduction heat gains for South Wall....... 120 XXVII. The converging process from heat gains to cooling loads for the Lighting

XXVIII. Comparison of the cooling loads by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods for the south window of the Retail Store

XXIX. Comparison of the cooling loads by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods for the Retail Store people

XXX. Comparison of the cooling loads by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods for the Retail Store lighting

XXXI. Cooling loads for the Retail Store by the revised TFM and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

XXXII. Comparison of the cooling loads by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods for Test Zone 2

XXXIII. Comparison of the cooling loads by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods for Test Zone 3

XXXIV. Cooling Loads by the revised TF method for the north window of office area (Test Zone 2)

XXXV(a). Sample tables obtained by executing the SHADEC program for shadow lengths due to external shading (Horizontal Projections)... 145 XXXV(b). Sample tables obtained by executing the SHADEC program for shadow lengths due to external shading (Vertical Projections)....... 146 XXXVI. Cooling Loads by the CLTD/SCL/CLF method for the north window of office area (Test Zone 2)

–  –  –

XXXVII. Cooling Loads by the revised TF method for the east window of office area (Test Zone 2)

XXXVIII. Cooling Loads by the CLTD/SCL/CLF method for the east window of office area (Test Zone 2)

XXXIX. Maximum percent differences for the typically shaded glass areas

–  –  –

2.1 The revised Transfer Function Method for calculating heat gains and cooling loads

2.2 Latitude (l), hour angle (h), and declination (δ)

2.3 The solar altitude angle (β), solar azimuth angle (φ), surface azimuth (ψ), solar azimuth angle (γ), the angle of incidence (θ), and the tilt angle(α) for an arbitrarily tilted surface

2.4 X-Y Shading for a Window with reveal

2.5 Externally shaded glass area with reveal

–  –  –

4.2 Flow chart of the HVAC program

5.1 Plan and Elevation views of the Retail Store

5.2 Test Zone 2 - Office Premises

5.3 View of Window at section A-A

5.4 Test Zone 3 - Top Story Office Premises

6.1 Cooling loads by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods for the Retail Store Roof

6.2 Cooling loads for the north window of test zone 2 by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods

6.3 Cooling loads for the east window of test zone 2 by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods

6.4 Transmitted cooling loads through the unshaded area of the east window of test zone 2

–  –  –

6.6 Cooling loads for the SW facing window at 0 °N by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods

–  –  –

6.7 Transmitted cooling loads through the shaded area of the SW facing window at 0 °N

6.8 Transmitted cooling loads through the unshaded area of the SW facing window at 0 °N

6.9 Cooling loads for the SW facing window at 24 °N by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF methods

6.10 Transmitted cooling loads through the shaded area of the SW facing window at 24 °N

6.11 Transmitted cooling loads through the unshaded area of the SW facing window at 24 °N

A.1 Total glass cooling loads for the south window of the Retail Store by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

A.2 Cooling loads for the people of the Retail Store by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

A.3 Cooling loads for the lighting of the Retail Store by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

A.4 Total cooling loads for the Retail Store by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

B.1 Total cooling loads for the office area of test zone 2 by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

B.2 Total cooling loads for the computer room of test zone 2 by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

B.3 Total cooling loads for test zone 2 by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

C.1 Total cooling loads for test zone 3 by the revised TF and the CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

D.1 Transmitted cooling loads for the shaded portion of the north window of office area (Test Zone 2)

D.2 Transmitted cooling loads for the unshaded portion of the north window of office area (Test Zone 2)

D.3 Transmitted cooling loads for the shaded portion of the east window of office area (Test Zone 2)

–  –  –

E.1 Typically exterior shaded glass window

E.2 Cooling loads for North facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.3 Cooling loads for NE facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.4 Cooling loads for East facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.5 Cooling loads for SE facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.6 Cooling loads for South facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.7 Cooling loads for SW facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.8 Cooling loads for West facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

E.9 Cooling loads for NW facing window (36°N) by the revised TF and CLTD/SCL/CLF Methods

–  –  –

Air-conditioning has been one of the more recent pursuits of man in his quest for a more comfortable existence. The primary purpose of an air-conditioning system, whether heating or cooling, is to maintain conditions that provide thermal comfort for the building occupants and conditions that are required by the products and processes within the space.

Central heating systems were being developed in the Nineteenth Century while the development of comfort cooling systems began in the early Twentieth Century. Since then, progress in this direction has taken rapid strides with significant development in various areas of science and technology.

Earlier load calculation methods paid little attention to the costs of operation of air-conditioning systems often resulting in substantially oversized systems. However, rising energy costs, complex building structures and construction materials, and concerns for the environment and natural resources have necessitated continued refinement of load calculation methods. Present day load calculation methods are directed more towards accurately sized systems which result in economical system performance.

Load calculations of the earlier days were based on the elementary steady state energy equation

–  –  –

By the mid-1940s ASHRAE developed equivalent temperature differentials for exterior surfaces facing different directions for the worst exposure to sunlight (with values 20 to 40 degrees above the actual temperature difference between the outside and inside) and used them to calculate heat gains (Romine, 1992). However, these heat gains were only instantaneous and considered the thermal storage only of these exterior surfaces in delaying the heat passage through them. Subsequent storage of these and other heat gains by the building's interior and its contents were not accounted for. Designers were aware of this fact but were unable to represent it quantitatively. This resulted in over-estimated cooling loads.



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