FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Online materials, documents

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 ||

«Published in final edited form as: Brain and Language, 2013 DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2013.03.001 Dorsal and ventral pathways in language development Jens ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

Papagno, C. (2011). Naming and the role of the uncinate fasciculus in language function. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 11(6), 553-559.

Parker, G. J. M., Luzzi, S., Alexander, D. C., Wheeler-Kingshott, C. A. M., Ciccarelli, O., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2005). Lateralization of ventral and dorsal auditorylanguage pathways in the human brain. NeuroImage, 24(3), 656-666.

Perani, D., Saccuman, M. C., Scifo, P., Anwander, A., Spada, D., Baldoli, C., et al.

(2011). Neural language networks at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(38), 16056-16061.

Poeppel, D., & Hickok, G. (2004). Towards a new functional anatomy of language.

Cognition, 92(1-2), 1-12.

Pujol, J., Soriano-Mas, C., Ortiz, H., Sebastian-Galles, N., Losilla, J. M., & Deus, J.

(2006). Myelination of language-related areas in the developing brain.

Neurology, 66(3), 339-343.

Rauschecker, J. P., & Scott, S. K. (2009). Maps and streams in the auditory cortex:

Nonhuman primates illuminate human speech processing. Nature Neuroscience, 12(6), 718-724.

Reese, T. G., Heid, O., Weisskoff, R. M., & Wedeen, V. J. (2003). Reduction of eddy-current-induced distortion in diffusion MRI using a twice-refocused spin echo. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 49(1), 177-182.

Sakai, K. L. (2005). Language Acquisition and Brain Development. Science, 310(5749), 815-819.

Sarubbo, S., De Benedictis, A., Maldonado, I., Basso, G., & Duffau, H. (2011).

Frontal terminations for the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle: Anatomical dissection, DTI study and functional considerations on a multi-component bundle. Brain Structure and Function, 1-17.

Saur, D., Kreher, B. W., Schnell, S., Kämmerer, D., Kellmeyer, P., Vry, M.-S., et al.

(2008). Ventral and dorsal pathways for language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(46), 18035-18040.

Smith, S. M., Jenkinson, M., Johansen-Berg, H., Rueckert, D., Nichols, T. E., Mackay, C. E., et al. (2006). Tract-based spatial statistics: Voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data. NeuroImage, 31(4), 1487-1505.

Talairach, J., & Tournoux, P. (1988). Co-planar stereotactic atlas of the human brain.

New York: Thieme.

Teinonen, T., Fellman, V., Naatanen, R., Alku, P., & Huotilainen, M. (2009).

Statistical language learning in neonates revealed by event-related brain potentials. BMC Neuroscience, 10(1), 21.

Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Dell'Acqua, F., Valabregue, R., & Catani, M. (2012).

Monkey to human comparative anatomy of the frontal lobe association tracts.

Cortex, 48, 82-96.

Thirion, J. P. (1998). Image matching as a diffusion process: An analogy with Maxwell's demons. Medical Image Analysis, 2(3), 243-260.

Vandermosten, M., Boets, B., Poelmans, H., Sunaert, S., Wouters, J., & Ghesquière, P. (2012). A tractography study in dyslexia: Neuroanatomic correlates of orthographic, phonological and speech processing. Brain.

Vigneau, M., Beaucousin, V., Hervé, P. Y., Duffau, H., Crivello, F., Houdé, O., et al.

(2006). Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: Phonology, semantics, and sentence processing. NeuroImage, 30(4), 1414-1432.

Voineskos, A. N., Lobaugh, N. J., Bouix, S., Rajji, T. K., Miranda, D., Kennedy, J. L., et al. (2010). Diffusion tensor tractography findings in schizophrenia across the adult lifespan. Brain, 133(5), 1494-1504.

Weiller, C., Bormann, T., Saur, D., Musso, M., & Rijntjes, M. (2011). How the ventral pathway got lost – And what its recovery might mean. Brain and Language, 118(1–2), 29-39.

Wernicke, C. (1874). Der aphasische Symptomencomplex. Eine psychologische Studie auf anatomischer Basis. Breslau: Cohn und Weigert.

Wilson, Stephen M., Galantucci, S., Tartaglia, Maria C., Rising, K., Patterson, Dianne K., Henry, Maya L., et al. (2011). Syntactic Processing Depends on Dorsal Language Tracts. Neuron, 72(2), 397-403.

Supplementary content Dorsal and ventral pathways in language development Jens Brauer, Alfred Anwander, Daniela Perani & Angela D. Friederici Supplementary methods The newborns’ data of the present study were obtained on a different scanner than the children’s and adults’ data. In order to ensure the reliability of the observed group differences in FA, we compared the newborns’ data with data from a second control group of adolescents and young adults (N = 15, age = 18.5, range = 15 to 22) obtained on the same scanner with a very similar protocol adapted for adults (FOV 231 x 136 x 240, resolution 112 x 88, 59 slices, TE 58ms, TR 9.8s, 35 gradient directions). Tracking results were obtained for this control group according to the methods described in the main text. As for the original adult sample, all fiber pathways of interest were tracked. Compared to our original sample of adults (mean FA = 0.462), this younger sample showed slightly smaller FA values (mean FA = 0.437) (see Suppl. Fig. 1). Statistical comparison was conducted for the control vs. infant data obtained at the same scanner. A two (groups: infants, controls) by four (tracts: dorsal pathway D1: AF pmc, ventral pathways: IFOF lat, IFOF dors, IFOF orb) repeated measures ANOVA confirmed our original findings with significant main effects for group (F(1,32) = 116.4, p.001) and tract (F(3,96) = 51.5, p.001) and a significant interaction F(3,96) = 36.9, p.001). This is consistent with the results of the original analysis.

Furthermore, we compared signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between newborns’, children’s and adults’ data.

SNR was extracted for white matter for the averaged B1000 image as described in Blank, Anwander, & von Kriegstein (2011). SNR was measured as the mean signal in the white matter divided by the standard deviation in a background region (free from ghosting or blurring artifacts). Values for three typical datasets were: adult: SNRmean b1000 = 49.5, child: SNR mean b1000 = 52.6, and newborn: SNR mean b1000 =

34.9. SNR was computed in the mean b1000 to take into account the variable signal intensities in the different diffusion gradients. In the mean image, the SNR increases approximately by the square root of the number of averages. Considering 60 directions in the adult and the child datasets and 21 directions in the newborn datasets, the estimated SNR values for a single b1000 image are rather comparable (adults: SNR single b1000 = 6.4, child: SNR single b1000 = 6.8, newborn: SNR single b1000 = 7.6).

The exact minimum of SNR for robust fiber tractography is difficult to determine. Jones and Basser (2004) proposed a minimum of 3 to avoid problems associated with the rectified noise floor in the estimation of the diffusion model. This corresponds to a SNR in the b0 image of 3/0.37 = 8.1 (Jones, Knösche, & Turner, 2012). Smith and colleagues (2007) proposed a minimum SNR in the b0 image of 15 for tractskeleton based analysis of derived measures like FA. Tractography has higher requirements on data quality than voxel based analysis to prevent the propagation of local errors and Fillard and colleagues (2011) recommend to use images with high SNR in order to obtain reliable tracking results. In this study, different tractography algorithms were evaluated with SNR in the b0 image of 15.8 (low) and 22.6 (high) and an SNR in the mean b 1500 image of 2.6 (low) and 17.6 (high). All mentioned recommendations are by far exceeded by every dataset in our samples. There is sufficiently high SNR in the present data for each group in order to obtain reliable high quality fiber tracking and evaluation of diffusion parameters.

Also our single subject trackings (see Suppl. Fig. 2) support the quality of the results.

Another limitation of the study is a potential effect of the different voxel sizes used for newborns (1.4 x

1.4 x 2.0 mm) compared to children and adults (1.7 x 1.7 x 1.7mm). FA had been reported to be affected by voxel size (Oouchi et al., 2007). This study reported smaller FA in the SLF by 0.02 when increasing the voxel size by a factor of 3. However, this was reported for rather large differences in voxel size (2 mm vs.

6 mm), while the difference in the voxel size in the present analysis is much smaller. The large FA difference of 0.2 in the AF between newborns and adults cannot be explained by the variable voxel size.

Supplementary figures

Supplementary Figure 1: Mean FA values for the dorsal pathway D1 (AFpmc) and the three components of the ventral pathway (the lateral portion of the IFOF: IFOFlat, the dorsal portion of the IFOF: IFOFdors, and the orbital portion of the IFOF: IFOForb) for infants and the older control group obtained at the same scanner. Infants show lower FA values for all tracts, particularly for the AFpmc. This comparison confirms the results from the main analysis (see results).

Supplementary Figure 2: Randomly selected samples of single-subject tracking results for the dorsal connection for three individual datasets from of the three groups (newborn infants, children, adults) as well as from the older control group obtained at the same scanner as the newborn’s data. In none of the newborns the D2 bundle (blue) connecting to the inferior frontal gyrus is traceable, while the D1 connection (yellow) to the premotor cortex can be tracked. Conversely, for all children and adults as well as the controls, both dorsal connections can be tracked. ROI-boxes for fiber selection in the frontal and temporal lobe are shown. They were positioned to segment the long segment of the arcuate fascicle according to Catani and colleagues (2005).

Supplementary Figure 3: A freely rotatable 3D view of tracking results for  newborns for the dorsal pathway D1 (yellow), and for the ventral pathways  V1 (green) and V2 (orbital branch: blue, dorsal branch: red). Every 1 out of  10 streamlines for each tract is represented. The 3D model in this figure  was integrated in the portable document format (PDF) using SimLab  Composer 2013 (SimLab Soft., Amman, Jordan) and requires the use of a  compatible PDF reader (eg. Adobe Reader 9).

Supplementary Figure 4: A freely rotatable 3D view of tracking results for  children for the dorsal pathways D1 (yellow) and D2 (blue), and for the  ventral pathways V1 (green) and V2 (orbital branch: blue, dorsal branch:  red). Every 1 out of 10 streamlines for each tract is represented. The 3D  model in this figure was integrated in the portable document format (PDF)  using SimLab Composer 2013 (SimLab Soft., Amman, Jordan) and requires  the use of a compatible PDF reader (eg. Adobe Reader 9).

Supplementary Figure 5: A freely rotatable 3D view of tracking results for  adults for the dorsal pathways D1 (yellow) and D2 (blue), and for the  ventral pathways V1 (green) and V2 (orbital branch: blue, dorsal branch:  red). Every 1 out of 10 streamlines for each tract is represented. The 3D  model in this figure was integrated in the portable document format (PDF)  using SimLab Composer 2013 (SimLab Soft., Amman, Jordan) and requires  the use of a compatible PDF reader (eg. Adobe Reader 9).

References Blank, H., Anwander, A., & von Kriegstein, K. (2011). Direct Structural Connections between Voice- and Face-Recognition Areas. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(36), 12906-12915.

Catani, M., Jones, D. K., & ffytche, D. H. (2005). Perisylvian language networks of the human brain.

Annals of Neurology, 57(1), 8-16.

Fillard, P., Descoteaux, M., Goh, A., Gouttard, S., Jeurissen, B., Malcolm, J., et al. (2011). Quantitative evaluation of 10 tractography algorithms on a realistic diffusion MR phantom. NeuroImage, 56(1), 220Jones, D. K., & Basser, P. J. (2004). “Squashing peanuts and smashing pumpkins”: How noise distorts diffusion-weighted MR data. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 52(5), 979-993.

Jones, D. K., Knösche, T. R., & Turner, R. (2012). White matter integrity, fiber count, and other fallacies:

The do's and don'ts of diffusion MRI. NeuroImage. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.081.

Oouchi, H., Yamada, K., Sakai, K., Kizu, O., Kubota, T., Ito, H., et al. (2007). Diffusion anisotropy measurement of brain white matter is affected by voxel size: Underestimation occurs in areas with crossing fibers. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 28(6), 1102-1106.

Smith, S. M., Johansen-Berg, H., Jenkinson, M., Rueckert, D., Nichols, T. E., Miller, K. L., et al. (2007).

Acquisition and voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 ||

Similar works:

«TACIS TRACECA PROJECT International Road Transport Transit Facilitation Business Plan Training Centre Azerbaijan February 2001 CONTENTS page 1 BACKGROUND ON TRAINING CENTRE IN AZERBAIJAN 1.1 The road transport sector in Azerbaijan 1.2 Other training providers in road transport 2 THE MISSION OF THE TRAINING CENTRE 2.1 Mission 2.2 The need for training 3 SELECTION AND PLANNING OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES. 11 3.1 Long-Term Objectives 3.2 The Formulation of Training Objectives in Response to Labour...»

«                                  _  FOOD VENDOR INFORMATION Please complete and return the Food Vendor Information Form along with your payment, a completed Sponsorship Agreement (indicating whether you are a Chamber Member Exhibit Booth or Future Member Exhibit Booth Sponsor) and a signed Rules & Regulations Agreement. All items must be submitted to the Greater Reston Chamber of Commerce no later than Friday, May 13, 2016. Your application cannot be complete...»

«Supreme Court of Florida No. SC15-774 DAN SOWELL, et al., Appellants, vs. PANAMA COMMONS L.P., Appellee. [June 2, 2016] POLSTON, J. In Stranburg v. Panama Commons L.P., 160 So. 3d 160 (Fla. 1st DCA 2015), the First District Court of Appeal held that Panama Commons’ right to due process was violated by applying the 2013 repeal of the ad valorem tax exemption under section 196.1978, Florida Statutes (2012), to the 2013 tax year.1 However, because Panama Commons’ interest in the tax...»

«The Financial Competency of Low-Income Households in Fiji Pacific Financial Inclusion Programme The Pacific Financial Inclusion Programme (PFIP) is a joint programme of the United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with additional funding support from the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and the European Union/Africa, Caribbean and Pacific Microfinance Framework Programme (EU/ACP). www.pfip.org About Jonathan Sibley...»

«State of Iowa JOURNAL OF THE HOUSE REGULAR SESSION SEVENTY–NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY Convened January 14, 2002 Adjourned April 12, 2002 Volume I January 14, 2002—March 28, 2002 THOMAS J. VILSACK, Governor BRENT SIEGRIST, Speaker of the House MARY KRAMER, President of the Senate Published by the STATE OF IOWA Des Moines ii SEVENTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 2002 Regular Session OFFICERS OF THE HOUSE BRENT SIEGRIST, Speaker of the House STEVE SUKUP, Speaker Pro Tempore CHRISTOPHER RANTS, Majority...»

«World Bank Editorial Style Guide November 7, 2005 ©2006 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: www.worldbank.org E-mail: feedback@worldbank.org Contents 1. Introduction 2. The Editorial Process Managing the Editorial Process Text Figures and Other Pictorial Elements Math Tables Editing Text Figures and Other Pictorial Elements Math Tables Proofreading 3. Parts of the Book 4. Permissions...»

«THE PRECIOUS THINGS OF GOD by Octavius Winslow, 1859 Click a link below to jump to that section. Foreword Preface The Preciousness of Christ The Preciousness of Faith The Preciousness of Trial The Preciousness of God's Thoughts The Preciousness of the Divine Promises The Preciousness of Christ's Blood The Precious Anointing The Preciousness of God's Children The Preciousness of God's Word The Preciousness of Prayer The Preciousness of Christ's Sympathy With Our Infirmities The Death of the...»

«Translated from the German MINUTES of the 92nd Annual General Meeting of the Shareholders of ROCHE HOLDING LTD, Basel, held at 10.30 a.m. on 2 March 2010 at the Convention Centre, Basel Trade Fair Complex, Basel _ Roche Chairman of the Board, Dr Franz B. Humer, called the meeting to order at 10.30 a.m. and took the chair. The Chairman was joined on the podium by the following members of the Corporate Executive Committee: Dr Severin Schwan, Mr Pascal Soriot, Mr Daniel O’Day, Dr Erich Hunziker,...»

«The Prayers of a Leader The key to influencing men is influencing God.BY J. OSWALD SANDERS In nothing should the leader be ahead of his followers more than in the realm of prayer. And yet the most advanced Christian is conscious of the possibility of endless development in his prayer life. Nor does he ever feel he has already attained. Dean C. J. Vaughan once said: “If l wished to humble anyone, I should question him about his prayers. I know nothing to compare with this topic for its...»

«RECENT PALEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION OF LAKE ISSYK-KUL S. Giralt and J. Klerkx Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA) Dept. of Geology Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium). e-mail: sgiralt@africamuseum.be S. Riera Museu, Laboratorio e Jardim Botanico de Lisboa, Laboratorio de Paleoecologia, Rua da Escola Politecnica 58, P-1294 Lisboa (Portugal). R. Julià Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera” (CSIC) Lluís Solé i Sabarís s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain). V. Lignier and C. Beck...»

«The Qa’em (a.t.f.s.) In The Quran Part II COMPANIONS AND ENEMIES OF IMAM MAHDI (A.T.F.S.) Extract from the book ‘Al Muhajja Fee Maa Nazala Ala Qa’em Al Hujjat of Sayyid Hashim Al-Bahraaani Title : The Qa’em in the Quran – Part II Publisher : Bohra Shia Ithna Ashari Jamat 4, Nesbit Road, Dholkawala Compound, Opp. Sales Tax office, Mazagaon, Mumbai – 400010. www.bohrashia.com email: info@ bohrashia.com Year of Printing : April 2014 Quantity : 200 Price : Rs 20/Preface In 1965, a Bohra...»


<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.thesis.dislib.info - Online materials, documents

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.