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«Proceedings of the th 14 National Street Tree Symposium 2013 ISBN: 978-0-9806814-1-3 TREENET Proceedings of the 14th National Street Tree Symposium ...»

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Carbon metabolism is disrupted with stomatal closure and the uptake of carbon diminishes and the tree starves because metabolic demand is still current. This may be exacerbated by Figure 15 Theoretical relationship, based on the hydraulic photoinhibition or increased respiration framework between the temporal length of drought associated with increased temperatures typical (duration), the relative decrease in water availability in drought periods. McDowell et al (2008) cite (intensity), and the three hypothesized mechanisms evidence of the link between tree death and underlying mortality. Carbon starvation is hypothesized to carbon availability – trees dying with decreased occur when drought duration is long enough to curtail stem wood growth rates and increased growth photosynthesis longer than the equivalent storage of carbon variability, though this may be species related.

reserves for maintenance of metabolism. Hydraulic failure is Finally, environmental drought conditions drive hypothesized to occur if drought intensity is sufficient to push changes in the demographics of plant pathogens a plant past its threshold for irreversible desiccation before (insects, fungi, bacteria). The growth rates, carbon starvation occurs. Biotic agents, such as insects and population size and/or mortality of some pathogens, can amplify or be amplified by both carbon pathogens will be favoured by these conditions, starvation and hydraulic failure (from McDowell et al., 2008 p though the exact dynamics for all species are 722).

not yet known. These changes may occur in conjunction with the tree’s physiological responses and condition (McDowell et al 2008).

This model can be applied to the example of Perth’s Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine), many of which have been declining. Surveys of 200 Norfolk Island Pine trees were carried out in 2009 and 2010.

Samples were collected and morphological characteristics of the consistently isolated fungus analysed. The isolated fungus was identified as Neofusicoccum parvum (Hossein & Burgess, 2011). These Botryosphaeriaceae are common endophytes of a wide variety of woody plants worldwide. Diseases associated with the Botryosphaeriaceae are often stress related requiring a predisposing incident to trigger disease expression.

Environmental stresses include drought, extreme temperature fluctuations, nutrient deficiencies and mechanical injuries (Hossein & Burgess, 2011). As well as the decline of the A. heterophylla are reports of the indigenous Melaleuca lanceolata (Rottnest Island Tea Tree) declining and dieing along the North Fremantle The 14th National Street Tree Symposium 2013 foreshore as a result of a Botryosphaeiraceae endophyte during one of Perths driest winters on record in 2010 (Barber, 2011).

Given the research presented in this paper, along with the changing climate, there needs to be further research into paving materials suitable for paths, road ways and other urban infrastructure that do not reradiate as much heat as the commonly used asphalt and concrete. The results of that research needs to be provided to the landscaping industry (including landscape architects) and local government who recommend and use these paving types and other hard surfaces. Finally, there should always be better scrutiny of tree species selection for paved urban environments, particularly given climate change predictions, population increase in the urban environment, together with the conditions favouring antagonistic and pathogenic biotic agent demographics. This scrutiny requires effort by the academic researchers, end users (industry) and tree suppliers – nurserymen.

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–  –  –

Background The Avenues of Honour 1915-2015 project is a national initiative to honour with a tree the memory of every individual who has made the supreme sacrifice on behalf of all Australians, by documenting, preserving and reinstating the original, and establishing new Avenues of Honour, during the Centenary of World War I in the period April 25th 2015 through to November 11th 2018. The Project was launched at the 5th National TREENET Symposium in 2004. (1) The arboreal Avenue of Honour has been an enduring and highly popular form of public commemoration of military service in Australia. More than any other nation, Australians have chosen to recognise service and sacrifice through community plantings of memorial Avenues of Honour. The earliest recorded Avenues of Honour were created in response to Australia’s participation in the Boer War, but the majority were established during and after World War I and, to a lesser extent, World War II.

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