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«Proceedings of the th 14 National Street Tree Symposium 2013 ISBN: 978-0-9806814-1-3 TREENET Proceedings of the 14th National Street Tree Symposium ...»

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At the time Sarah Cockerell listed 185 avenues as surviving in some form (2) but after a nationwide survey in 2006 she recorded 567 known Avenues of Honour across Australia, most of which remained in some form, although some were depleted or in poor condition. Across all of the existing Avenues there are estimated to be more than 100 000 living trees. These Avenues and the trees that comprise them are typically on public land and, most often, are managed by Local Councils, although Avenues may also have dedicated local management committees.

Known Avenues of Honour by State, as of 2006

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Purpose The purpose of the Avenues of Honour 2015 project is to ensure that Avenues continue to play an important role in community commemoration of military service and sacrifice. A particular goal for the Anzac Centenary is to ensure that each of those Australians who made the supreme sacrifice in serving their country are recognised with a thriving living memorial that is known, recognised and discoverable by their descendants, relatives and by local communities as well as by any other interested parties.

Project Scope The TREENET Avenues of Honour project provides national leadership and co-ordination of community-based initiatives to restore, reinstate and establish memorial Avenues of Honour to coincide with the Anzac Centenary and the 100th anniversary of the major events of World War I over the period 1914-1918.

The 14th National Street Tree Symposium 2013 The project will undertake research and documentation of existing Avenues, creating a comprehensive and accessible online record of all Avenues using the latest social and mobile web technologies and providing advice and support to local communities to restore, reinstate or establish Avenues of Honour as part of their commemorations of the Anzac Centenary and the 100th Anniversary of the events of World War I.

The project is using contemporary web-based technologies to create an enduring and comprehensive national online record of existing, planned and lost Avenues as a precursor to the engagement of local communities in their preservation, restoration and establishment anytime in the future.

Over 5 years, the project will complete the task of documenting all avenues, trees and persons commemorated, provide assistance and training to local communities to research document and promote their avenues and provide technical advice and support in the restoration of existing avenues and the establishment of new ones.

There are three main areas of project activity (see the project plan at Section 7 for details)

1. Research and documentation Developing and managing an integrated national online reference service for Australia’s Avenues of Honour covering their history, significance, current condition and future management and sustainability.

2. Community engagement Inspiring local communities to recognise the value of their existing living memorials and to undertake restoration and planting initiatives as a national community-based commemoration for the Centenary of Anzac and the 100th anniversary of events during World War I.

3. Supporting community activities Providing standard operating procedures for undertaking Avenue projects at the community level as well as technical assessment and advice in specialist areas relating to trees, historical data, information sharing and commemorative protocol.

Outcomes The project aims to deliver outcomes in the short term during the course of the project and in the long term by building sustainable online information resources and local communities of interest to support Avenues of

Honour into the future. In particular, the project will achieve:

 Increased public awareness and appreciation of Avenues of Honour as a record and monument to military service and sacrifice.

 An integrated national web-based information resource about Avenues of Honours and the people and service they commemorate.

 Sustainable local communities of interest around each Avenue  Improvement in the long term health and sustainability of Australia’s Avenues of Honour.

 New investment in commemorative plantings.

 Enhanced community engagement through commemoration activities associated with the Avenues during the Anzac Centenary and the 100th Anniversary of the events of World War I.

 Increased accessibility of local history records about the experience of Australia’s service men and women.

 Improving management practices for public arboreal projects.

 Education, public awareness and community access.

Technical development The project requires the development of technologically-based products and infrastructure to capture, store and publish information about Avenues of Honour and to make it accessible to communities, families, researchers and students. This infrastructure is at the heart of the project as it brings together for the first time all information about Australia’s Avenues of Honour and the people and service that they commemorate.

The project will commission and manage the development of an integrated technical infrastructure that will support community participation in the creation and sharing of information about the avenues and in creating and sharing the memories of communities and families about those who served.

The 14th National Street Tree Symposium 2013 In 2013, the technical infrastructure to support the project was scoped and development was undertaken on data requirements by Sociable Technology. The first component, the Avenues of Honour project blog, was launched in June.

There are four main components for the technical infrastructure

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The Avenues of Honour wiki website will, on completion, create a national community-sourced encyclopedia of information about the Avenues and the people and service they commemorate. The use of wiki technology enables people across Australia to add information and memories about the Avenues and the people associated with them. The website will become an indispensable permanent online reference to the history and health of every Avenue.

Mobile applications will assist in the capture of information about Avenues, plaques and trees in the research phase and provide information from the wiki website for mobile devices such as phones, tablets and GPS devices.

The project blog launched in April 2013 will document and promote the project over 5 years to keep participants informed and engaged. The blog integrates with social media platforms and e-newsletters to promote the Avenues project and document its progress and successes.

The 14th National Street Tree Symposium 2013 Avenues of Honour project blog site, launched June 2013 at www.avenuesofhonour.org The Avenues of Honour database will maintain a full data record of each Avenue for the purpose of supporting effective planning and future management of Australia’s Avenues.

There are many fields of information that should be captured if possible for each tree or Avenue. At the 2007 TREENET Symposium Ben Kenyon (3) presented a draft standard for the Avenues of Honour database which has been a key document in the design of the currently proposed database.

In planning for the technical infrastructure to support the online presence of the Avenues of Honour project, the data standard has been updated and extended.

Data standard for Avenues of Honour Project, December 2012 This data standard identifies the data fields to be used in the master database and wiki website. Relationships between the fields are built into the data model.

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The 14th National Street Tree Symposium 2013 Participation and promotion The Avenues of Honour project is based on widespread public participation which requires engagement with a broad range of project stakeholders.

The following stakeholder map outlines the key stakeholder groups in the project. A stakeholder engagement strategy will be developed as part of the project’s Marketing and Communication Plan.

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Participants The project aims to engage people across Australia as participants in researching, documenting, restoring, creating and celebrating Avenues of Honour in their communities.

Research The research stage of the project will consolidate information about existing Avenues into a single national database and make it available to people via the wiki website and mobile applications. The project will work in partnership with the Federation of Australian Historical Societies and the Australian Council of National Trusts to engage local history and heritage organisations in the project as on the ground researchers and contributors to the project.

Community engagement Community engagement activities will happen in collaboration with Local Councils, RSL organisations, Local Historical Societies and National Trust organisations and in conjunction with schools and other community organisations. The project will establish community partnerships around each Avenue and support them with training and information to enable them to record and promote the history and significance of local Avenues.

Marketing and Communication The project will develop a national marketing and communication strategy to promote the goals and successes of the project through print broadcast media and online through the project blog, social media platforms and e-newsletter. The communication strategy will ensure that local community groups are in touch with each other to promote shared interest and learning across Australia.

Sponsorship and fundraising The project depends on significant funding being raised through sponsorship and fundraising activities. A sponsorship strategy will be developed to identify suitable sponsors to approach for support. A presentation to potential major sponsors and supporters will be developed for sponsor approaches to be undertaken in the first half of 2013.

The project will also be nominating for funding under Australian Government Anzac Centenary activities.

Education and public programs The project will develop education resource materials in line with the new Australian Curriculum to support teachers in promoting learning and participation in the Avenues of Honour project within primary and secondary schools. Communities that partner with the program will be able to participate in workshop sessions on promoting participation in the Avenues program.

The 14th National Street Tree Symposium 2013 Conclusion Through the use of new communications technology, the Avenues of Honour project is now positioned to enter a new phase of public promotion and community engagement. The establishment of the project blog site in 2013, presenting the current data held by TREENET about known Avenues has significantly raised the profile of the project and brought forth new information and a groundswell of public interest and support.

The finalisation of the data standard to inform the future development of a wiki based website and supporting mobile applications means we are also ready to enter the next stage of documentation and promotion of existing Avenues. This will build momentum for restoration and replanting activity and for the creation of new Avenues to coincide with the 100th Anniversary of World War I and the Gallipoli landings.

References Lawry, D. 2004. Proceedings of the 5th National Street Tree Symposium, TREENET AVENUES OF HONOUR 2015 PROJECT Cockerell, S. 2004. Proceedings of the 5th National Street Tree Symposium, TREENET AVENUES OF HONOUR SURVEY Kenyon, B. 2006. Proceedings of the 7th National Street Tree Symposium, DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD FOR


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Introduction The majority of street trees that provide an impact in the landscape result from decision making processes conducted many years in the past. It is important to identify whether current decision making processes will leave a similar legacy for future generations.

Many large land managers today maintain an inventory of their street tree assets. It would appear that the primary drivers for conducting a tree inventory, in most cases, relate to risk management and works scheduling (Keller and Konijnendijk 2012). While these are arguably essential to the management of large populations of trees there is much more that can be determined from the information collected. To date most of the published analysis of inventory data concerns the species diversity (e.g. Frank et al. 2006, Ningal et al.

2010, Thaiutsa et al. 2008) or the dimensions of the trees (e.g. Ningal et al. 2010, Thaiutsa et al. 2008). This paper aims to investigate one potential methodology for analysing inventory data to evaluate the overall sustainability of the tree population.

In the context of an urban environment there are many reasons why trees may require removal including risk mitigation, infrastructure works, aesthetics, vandalism, etc. It is rare that any removal of trees are conducted prior to there being a necessity to do so, a common goal of street tree management is an increase in the size of trees (Ordóñez and Duniker 2013) which is not consistent with proactive tree removals. While an admirable ideal, if the retention of large/old trees is a tree management driver it is possible that a situation is created where a large proportion of the tree asset will require removal in a short space of time. If we are to provide an equivalent benefit from our street trees to all future generations then appropriate proactive tree removals may be justified.

There have been attempts to promote a variety of age classes within a tree population to prevent large scale removals based on mortality, such as Kirnbauer et al. 2009, however (in particular the cited paper) this relates to establishing a planting program to promote this variety rather than an analysis of the existing population.

In bushfire planning and management one approach to ensuring ecologically sustainable fire regimes in a landscape unit is based around the concept of theoretical age class distributions. The fundamental principle is that in order to achieve older age classes of vegetation there must be proportionally more younger age classes to account for an increasing probability of disturbance as the vegetation community ages. It is not intended in this paper to assess this method in relation to its appropriateness in the context of bushfire planning and management.

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