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Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. Our audits included consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation.
We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of PacifiCorp and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2013, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP Portland, Oregon March 3, 2014
(1) Organization and Operations PacifiCorp, which includes PacifiCorp and its subsidiaries, is a United States regulated electric utility company serving retail customers, including residential, commercial, industrial, irrigation and other customers in portions of the states of Utah, Oregon, Wyoming, Washington, Idaho and California. PacifiCorp owns, or has interests in, a number of thermal, hydroelectric, windpowered and geothermal generating facilities, as well as electric transmission and distribution assets. PacifiCorp also buys and sells electricity on the wholesale market with other utilities, energy marketing companies, financial institutions and other market participants. PacifiCorp is subject to comprehensive state and federal regulation. PacifiCorp's subsidiaries support its electric utility operations by providing coal mining services. PacifiCorp is an indirect subsidiary of MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company ("MEHC"), a holding company based in Des Moines, Iowa that owns subsidiaries principally engaged in energy businesses. MEHC is a consolidated subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc. ("Berkshire Hathaway").
(2) Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Basis of Consolidation and Presentation The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of PacifiCorp and its subsidiaries in which it holds a controlling financial interest as of the financial statement date. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates in Preparation of Financial Statements The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the period.
These estimates include, but are not limited to, the effects of regulation; certain assumptions made in accounting for pension and other postretirement benefits; asset retirement obligations ("AROs"); income taxes; unbilled revenue; valuation of certain financial assets and liabilities, including derivative contracts; and accounting for contingencies. Actual results may differ from the estimates used in preparing the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Accounting for the Effects of Certain Types of Regulation
PacifiCorp prepares its financial statements in accordance with authoritative guidance for regulated operations, which recognizes the economic effects of regulation. Accordingly, PacifiCorp defers the recognition of certain costs or income if it is probable that, through the ratemaking process, there will be a corresponding increase or decrease in future rates. Regulatory assets and liabilities are established to reflect the impacts of these deferrals, which will be recognized in earnings in the periods the corresponding changes in rates occur.
PacifiCorp continually evaluates the applicability of the guidance for regulated operations and whether its regulatory assets and liabilities are probable of inclusion in future rates by considering factors such as a change in the regulator's approach to setting rates from cost-based ratemaking to another form of regulation, other regulatory actions or the impact of competition that could limit PacifiCorp's ability to recover its costs. PacifiCorp believes the application of the guidance for regulated operations is appropriate and its existing regulatory assets and liabilities are probable of inclusion in future rates. The evaluation reflects the current political and regulatory climate at both the federal and state levels. If it becomes no longer probable that the deferred costs or income will be included in future rates, the related regulatory assets and liabilities will be written off to net income or reestablished as accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) ("AOCI").
Fair Value Measurements
As defined under GAAP, fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability between market participants in the principal market or in the most advantageous market when no principal market exists. Adjustments to transaction prices or quoted market prices may be required in illiquid or disorderly markets in order to estimate fair value. Different valuation techniques may be appropriate under the circumstances to determine the value that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction. Market participants are assumed to be independent, knowledgeable, able and willing to transact an exchange and not under duress. Nonperformance or credit risk is considered in determining fair value. Considerable judgment may be required in interpreting market data used to develop the estimates of fair value. Accordingly, estimates of fair value presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the amounts that could be realized in a current or future market exchange.
Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash and Investments
Cash equivalents consist of funds invested in money market mutual funds, United States Treasury Bills and other investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased. Cash and cash equivalents exclude amounts where availability is restricted by legal requirements, loan agreements or other contractual provisions. Restricted amounts are included in other current assets and other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Available-for-sale securities are carried at fair value with realized gains and losses, as determined on a specific identification basis, recognized in earnings and unrealized gains and losses recognized in AOCI, net of tax. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, PacifiCorp had no unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities.
PacifiCorp utilizes the equity method of accounting with respect to investments when it possesses the ability to exercise significant influence, but not control, over the operating and financial policies of the investee. The ability to exercise significant influence is presumed when an investor possesses more than 20% of the voting interests of the investee. This presumption may be overcome based on specific facts and circumstances which demonstrate the ability to exercise significant influence is restricted. In applying the equity method, PacifiCorp records the investment at cost and subsequently increases or decreases the carrying value of the investment by PacifiCorp's proportionate share of the net earnings or losses and other comprehensive income (loss) ("OCI") of the investee. PacifiCorp records dividends or other equity distributions as reductions in the carrying value of the investment.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are stated at the outstanding principal amount, net of an estimated allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on PacifiCorp's assessment of the collectibility of amounts owed to PacifiCorp by its customers. This assessment requires judgment regarding the ability of customers to pay or the outcome of any pending disputes.
The change in the balance of the allowance for doubtful accounts, which is included in accounts receivable, net on the Consolidated
Balance Sheets, is summarized as follows for the years ended December 31 (in millions):
Derivatives PacifiCorp employs a number of different derivative contracts, including forwards, options, swaps and other agreements, to manage price risk for electricity, natural gas and other commodities and interest rate risk. Derivative contracts are recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets as either assets or liabilities and are stated at estimated fair value unless they are designated as normal purchases or normal sales and qualify for the exception afforded by GAAP. Derivative balances reflect offsetting permitted under master netting agreements with counterparties and cash collateral paid or received under such agreements.
Commodity derivatives used in normal business operations that are settled by physical delivery, among other criteria, are eligible for and may be designated as normal purchases or normal sales. Normal purchases or normal sales contracts are not marked-tomarket and settled amounts are recognized as operating revenue or energy costs on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
For PacifiCorp's derivative contracts, the settled amount is generally included in rates. Accordingly, the net unrealized gains and losses associated with interim price movements on contracts that are accounted for as derivatives and probable of inclusion in rates are recorded as regulatory assets. For a derivative contract not probable of inclusion in rates, changes in the fair value are recognized in earnings.
Inventories Inventories consist of materials and supplies, coal stocks, natural gas and fuel oil, which are stated at the lower of average cost or market.
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Additions to property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. PacifiCorp capitalizes all construction related material, direct labor and contract services, as well as indirect construction costs, which include debt and equity allowance for funds used during construction ("AFUDC"). The cost of additions and betterments are capitalized, while costs incurred that do not improve or extend the useful lives of the related assets are generally expensed.
Depreciation and amortization are generally computed on the straight-line method based on composite asset class lives prescribed by PacifiCorp's various regulatory authorities or over the assets' estimated useful lives. Depreciation studies are completed periodically to determine the appropriate composite asset class lives, net salvage and depreciation rates. These studies are reviewed and rates are ultimately approved by the various regulatory authorities. Net salvage includes the estimated future residual values of the assets and any estimated removal costs recovered through approved depreciation rates. Estimated removal costs are recorded as either a cost of removal regulatory liability or an ARO liability on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, depending on whether the obligation meets the requirements of an ARO. As actual removal costs are incurred, the associated liability is reduced.
Generally when PacifiCorp retires or sells a component of regulated property, plant and equipment, it charges the original cost, net of any proceeds from the disposition, to accumulated depreciation. Any gain or loss on disposals of all other assets is recorded through earnings.
Debt and equity AFUDC, which represents the estimated costs of debt and equity funds necessary to finance the construction of property, plant and equipment, is capitalized as a component of property, plant and equipment, with offsetting credits to the Consolidated Statements of Operations. AFUDC is computed based on guidelines set forth by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC"). After construction is completed, PacifiCorp is permitted to earn a return on these costs as a component of the related assets, as well as recover these costs through depreciation expense over the useful lives of the related assets.
Asset Retirement Obligations
PacifiCorp recognizes AROs when it has a legal obligation to perform decommissioning, reclamation or removal activities upon retirement of an asset. PacifiCorp's AROs are primarily associated with its generating facilities. The fair value of an ARO liability is recognized in the period in which it is incurred, if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made, and is added to the carrying amount of the associated asset, which is then depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset. Subsequent to the initial recognition, the ARO liability is adjusted for any revisions to the original estimate of undiscounted cash flows (with corresponding adjustments to property, plant and equipment) and for accretion of the ARO liability due to the passage of time. The difference between the ARO liability, the corresponding ARO asset included in property, plant and equipment, net and amounts recovered in rates to satisfy such liabilities is recorded as a regulatory asset or liability.
Revenue is recognized as electricity is delivered or services are provided. Revenue recognized includes billed, as well as unbilled, amounts. As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, unbilled revenue was $258 million and $251 million, respectively, and is included in accounts receivable, net on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Rates charged are established by regulators or contractual arrangements.