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The determination of sales to individual customers is based on the reading of the customer's meter, which is performed on a systematic basis throughout the month. At the end of each month, energy provided to customers since the date of the last meter reading is estimated, and the corresponding unbilled revenue is recorded. The estimate is reversed in the following month and actual revenue is recorded based on subsequent meter readings.
The monthly unbilled revenues of PacifiCorp are determined by the estimation of unbilled energy provided during the period, the assignment of unbilled energy provided to customer classes and the average rate per customer class. Factors that can impact the estimate of unbilled energy include, but are not limited to, seasonal weather patterns, total volumes supplied to the system, line losses, economic impacts and composition of sales among customer classes.
PacifiCorp records sales, franchise and excise taxes collected directly from customers and remitted directly to the taxing authorities on a net basis on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Income Taxes Berkshire Hathaway includes PacifiCorp in its United States federal income tax return. Consistent with established regulatory practice, PacifiCorp's provision for income taxes has been computed on a stand-alone basis.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are based on differences between the financial statement and income tax basis of assets and liabilities using estimated income tax rates expected to be in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.
Changes in deferred income tax assets and liabilities that are associated with components of OCI are charged or credited directly to OCI. Changes in deferred income tax assets and liabilities that are associated with income tax benefits and expense for certain property-related basis differences and other various differences that PacifiCorp is required to pass on to its customers are charged or credited directly to a regulatory asset or liability. These amounts were recognized as regulatory assets of $461 million and $456 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively, and regulatory liabilities of $21 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and will be included in rates when the temporary differences reverse. Other changes in deferred income tax assets and liabilities are included as a component of income tax expense. Changes in deferred income tax assets and liabilities attributable to changes in enacted income tax rates are charged or credited to income tax expense or a regulatory asset or liability in the period of enactment. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred income tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized.
Investment tax credits are generally deferred and amortized over the estimated useful lives of the related properties or as prescribed by various regulatory jurisdictions. Investment tax credits are included in other long-term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and were $32 million and $34 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
In determining PacifiCorp's income taxes, management is required to interpret complex income tax laws and regulations, which includes consideration of regulatory implications imposed by PacifiCorp's various regulatory jurisdictions. PacifiCorp's income tax returns are subject to continuous examinations by federal, state and local income tax authorities that may give rise to different interpretations of these complex laws and regulations. Due to the nature of the examination process, it generally takes years before these examinations are completed and these matters are resolved. PacifiCorp recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that is more likely than not of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Although the ultimate resolution of PacifiCorp's federal, state and local income tax examinations is uncertain, PacifiCorp believes it has made adequate provisions for these income tax positions. The aggregate amount of any additional income tax liabilities that may result from these examinations, if any, is not expected to have a material impact on PacifiCorp's consolidated financial results. PacifiCorp's unrecognized tax benefits are primarily included in other long-term liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Estimated interest and penalties, if any, related to uncertain tax positions are included as a component of income tax expense on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Segment Information PacifiCorp currently has one segment, which includes its regulated electric utility operations.
New Accounting Pronouncements In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2013-04, which amends FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 405, "Liabilities." The amendments in this guidance require an entity to measure obligations resulting from joint and several liability arrangements for which the total amount of the obligation is fixed at the reporting date as the amount the reporting entity agreed to pay plus any additional amounts the reporting entity expects to pay on behalf of its co-obligor. Additionally, the guidance requires the entity to disclose the nature and amount of the obligation, as well as other information about those obligations. This guidance is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2013. PacifiCorp adopted this guidance on January 1, 2014. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on PacifiCorp's disclosures included within Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In February 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-02, which amends FASB ASC Topic 220, "Comprehensive Income." The amendments in this guidance require an entity to provide information about the amounts reclassified out of AOCI by component.
In addition, an entity is required to present, either on the face of the financial statements or in the notes, significant amounts reclassified out of AOCI by the respective line items of net income if the amount reclassified is required under GAAP to be reclassified to net income in its entirety in the same reporting period. For other amounts that are not required under GAAP to be reclassified in their entirety to net income, an entity is required to cross-reference to other disclosures required by GAAP that provide additional detail about those amounts. PacifiCorp adopted this guidance on January 1, 2013. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on PacifiCorp's disclosures included within Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
In December 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-11, which amends FASB ASC Topic 210, "Balance Sheet." The amendments in this guidance require an entity to provide quantitative disclosures about offsetting financial instruments and derivative instruments. Additionally, this guidance requires qualitative and quantitative disclosures about master netting agreements or similar agreements when the financial instruments and derivative instruments are not offset. In January 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-01, which also amends FASB ASC Topic 210 to clarify that the scope of ASU No. 2011-11 only applies to derivative instruments, repurchase agreements, reverse purchase agreements and securities borrowing and securities lending transactions that are either being offset or are subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement. PacifiCorp adopted the guidance on January 1, 2013. The adoption of the guidance did not have a material impact on PacifiCorp's disclosures included within Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(3) Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Property, plant and equipment, net consists of the following as of December 31 (in millions):
(1) Computer software costs included in intangible plant are initially assigned a depreciable life of 5 to 10 years.
The average depreciation and amortization rate applied to depreciable property, plant and equipment was 2.8% for each of the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.
In January 2013, PacifiCorp filed applications for depreciation rate changes with the Utah Public Service Commission ("UPSC"), the Oregon Public Utility Commission ("OPUC"), the Wyoming Public Service Commission ("WPSC"), the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission ("WUTC") and the Idaho Public Utilities Commission ("IPUC") based on PacifiCorp's most recent depreciation study. PacifiCorp received approval from the state commissions to change the depreciation rates effective January 1, 2014. The approved depreciation rates will result in an estimated annual increase in depreciation expense of $40 million on a total company basis based on the depreciable plant balances as of December 31, 2013 included in the study.
Unallocated Acquisition Adjustments
PacifiCorp has unallocated acquisition adjustments that represent the excess of costs of the acquired interests in property, plant and equipment purchased from the entity that first devoted the assets to utility service over their net book value in those assets.
These unallocated acquisition adjustments included in other property, plant and equipment had an original cost of $159 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012 and accumulated depreciation of $118 million and $113 million as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
(4) Jointly Owned Utility Facilities Under joint facility ownership agreements with other utilities, PacifiCorp, as a tenant in common, has undivided interests in jointly owned generation, transmission and distribution facilities. PacifiCorp accounts for its proportionate share of each facility, and each joint owner has provided financing for its share of each facility. Operating costs of each facility are assigned to joint owners based on their percentage of ownership or energy production, depending on the nature of the cost. Operating costs and expenses on the Consolidated Statements of Operations include PacifiCorp's share of the expenses of these facilities.
(1) As discussed in Note 17, PacifiCorp has contracted to purchase the remaining 50% of the output of the Hermiston generating facility.
(2) Includes unallocated acquisition adjustments of $141 million related to Facility in Service and $102 million related to Accumulated Depreciation and Amortization.
(1) Amounts primarily represent income tax benefits and expense related to certain property-related basis differences and other various items that PacifiCorp is required to pass on to its customers.
(2) Represents amounts not yet recognized as a component of net periodic benefit cost that are expected to be included in rates when recognized.
PacifiCorp had regulatory assets not earning a return on investment of $1.244 billion and $1.618 billion as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
(1) Amounts represent estimated costs, as accrued through depreciation rates and exclusive of ARO liabilities, of removing property, plant and equipment in accordance with accepted regulatory practices. Amounts are deducted from rate base or otherwise accrue a carrying cost.
(6) Short-term Debt and Other Financing Agreements
The following table summarizes PacifiCorp's availability under its revolving credit facilities as of December 31 (in millions):
In March 2013, PacifiCorp replaced its $630 million unsecured revolving credit facility, which had been set to expire in July 2013, with a $600 million unsecured revolving credit facility expiring in March 2018. Additionally, PacifiCorp has a $600 million unsecured revolving credit facility expiring in June 2017. These credit facilities, which support PacifiCorp's commercial paper program, certain series of its tax-exempt bond obligations and provide for the issuance of letters of credit, have a variable interest rate based on the London Interbank Offered Rate or a base rate, at PacifiCorp's option, plus a spread that varies based on PacifiCorp's credit ratings for its senior unsecured long-term debt securities. These credit facilities require that PacifiCorp's ratio of consolidated debt, including current maturities, to total capitalization not exceed 0.65 to 1.0 as of the last day of each quarter. As of December 31, 2013, PacifiCorp was in compliance with the covenants of its credit facilities.
As of December 31, 2013 and 2012, PacifiCorp had $559 million and $602 million, respectively, of fully available letters of credit issued under committed arrangements, of which $270 million and $602 million, respectively, were issued under the revolving credit facilities. These letters of credit support PacifiCorp's variable-rate tax-exempt bond obligations and certain collateral requirements of commodity contracts and expire through March 2015.
As of December 31, 2013, PacifiCorp had approximately $16 million of additional letters of credit issued on its behalf to provide credit support for certain transactions as required by third parties. These letters of credit were all undrawn as of December 31, 2013 and have provisions that automatically extend the annual expiration dates for an additional year unless the issuing bank elects not to renew a letter of credit prior to the expiration date.
(7) Long-term Debt and Capital Lease Obligations
PacifiCorp's long-term debt and capital lease obligations were as follows as of December 31 (in millions):
(1) Secured by pledged first mortgage bonds registered to and held by the tax-exempt bond trustee generally with the same interest rates, maturity dates and redemption provisions as the tax-exempt bond obligations.
(2) Supported by $559 million and $601 million of fully available letters of credit issued under committed bank arrangements as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, respectively.