FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Online materials, documents

Pages:     | 1 || 3 |

«Viruses 2014, 6, 1897-1910; doi:10.3390/v6051897 OPEN ACCESS viruses ISSN 1999-4915 Short Communication Molecular ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

EU929078), Oxbow virus (OXBV Ng1453, S: FJ5339166; M: FJ539167; L: FJ593497) Viruses 2014, 6 1904 and Rockport virus (RKPV MSB57412, S: HM015223; M: HM015219; L: HM015221).

Also shown are the phylogenetic positions of representative rodent-borne hantaviruses, including Hantaan virus (HTNV 76-118, S: NC_005218; M: Y00386; L: NC_005222), Soochong virus (SOOV SOO-1, S: AY675349; M: AY675353; L: DQ056292), Dobrava virus (DOBV Greece, S: NC_005233; M: NC_005234L: NC_005235), Seoul virus (SEOV 80-39, S: NC_005236; M: NC_005237; L: NC_005238), Sangassou virus (SANG SA14, S:

JQ082300; M: JQ082301; L: JQ082302),Tula virus (TULV M5302v, S: NC_005227; M:

NC_005228; L: NC_005226), Puumala virus (PUUV Sotkamo, S: NC_005224; M:

NC_005223; L: NC_005225), Prospect Hill virus (PHV PH-1, S: Z49098; M: X55129; L:

EF646763), Sin Nombre virus (SNV NMH10, S: NC_005216; M: NC_005215; L:

NC_005217) and Andes virus (ANDV Chile9717869, S: NC_003466; M: NC_003467; L:

NC_003468). The numbers at each node are posterior node probabilities (left) based on 150,000 trees and bootstrap values (right) based 1000 replicates executed on the RAxML BlackBox web server, respectively. The scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site.

2.4. Bats as Hosts of Hantaviruses

The phylogeny of bats is not fully resolved [21]. The order Chiroptera was traditionally divided in two suborders, Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera. However, due to the paraphyly of the Microchiroptera, a new taxonomic nomenclature, comprising the suborder Yinpterochiroptera (megabats or fruit bats in the Pteropodidae family in Megachiroptera and a few Microchiroptera families) and Yangochiroptera (the remaining Microchiroptera families), has been proposed [33]. In the former classification, bat species hosting hantaviruses belong only to the Microchiroptera suborder, Viruses 2014, 6 1905 but in the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification, they belong to both suborders, suggesting that primordial hantaviruses may have emerged in an early common ancestor of bats.

Within the Microchiroptera, hantaviruses are found in bats belonging to four phylogenetically distant families, namely Hipposideridae (Old World leaf-nosed bats) and Rhinolophidae (horseshoe bats) in the suborder Yinpterochiroptera, and Nycteridae (hollow-faced bats) and Vespertilionidae (vesper bats) in the suborder Yangochiroptera. The families Hipposideridae and Vespertilionidae are among the most speciose insectivorous bats, with member species distributed across Africa, Europe, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Their vast geographic distribution provides unlimited opportunities to search for related bat-associated hantaviruses.

Compared to the multitude of hantaviruses reported from approximately 50% of soricomorph species tested [34,35], the cumulative number of newly recognized bat-borne hantaviruses is exceedingly low, if one considers the 533 bat samples tested in the present study, along with the nearly 1200 bat specimens analyzed in four other studies [27–30]. The modest proportion of hantavirus RNA detection in bat tissues may be attributed to the highly divergent nature of their genomes, as well as the very focal or localized nature of hantavirus infection, small sample sizes of bat species, primer mismatches, suboptimal PCR cycling conditions, and variable tissue preservation with degraded RNA [27,29].

Alternatively, bats may be less susceptible to hantavirus infection or may have developed immune mechanisms to curtail viral replication and/or persistence. For answers to such questions, and myriad others, reagents need to be developed and multidisciplinary collaborative studies must be designed to collect optimal specimens to isolate and characterize these newfound bat-borne hantaviruses. Only then will a better understanding be gained about their evolutionary origins and phylogeography, co-evolution history, transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential.

3. Experimental Section

3.1. Samples Archival frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved tissues from bats, captured during 1981–2012 in Brazil, China, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Korea, Republic of Georgia, Vietnam and the United States (Figure 1 and Table 1), were tested for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR, using newly designed and previously employed oligonucleotide primers [12,18,27,29]. Of the 533 samples tested, the majority consisted of lung (310) and kidney (51) tissues (Table 1). RNA extracted from rectal swabs and feces (79) were also tested. Bats were from seven families (Hipposideridae, Molossidae, Nycteridae, Pteropodidae, Phyllostomidae, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae), 28 genera and 53 species (Figure 1). The University of Hawaii Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved the use of archival tissues as being exempt from protocol review.

3.2. Genome Detection and Sequencing

Total RNA extraction from tissues, using the PureLink Micro-to-Midi total RNA purification kit (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA, USA), and cDNA synthesis, using the SuperScript III First-Strand Synthesis Systems (Invitrogen) with random hexamers, were performed as described previously [9,12,18].

Oligonucleotide primers used to amplify S-, M- and L-genomic segments of bat-borne hantaviruses are Viruses 2014, 6 1906

–  –  –

3.3. Phylogenetic Analysis Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, implemented in RAxML Blackbox webserver [36] and MrBayes 3.1 [37], under the best-fit GTR+I+Γ model of evolution [38] and jModelTest version 0.1 [39], were used to generate phylogenetic trees. Two replicate Bayesian Metropolis–Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo runs, each consisting of six chains of 10 million generations sampled every 100 generations with a burn-in of 25,000 (25%), resulted in 150,000 trees overall. The S, M and L segments were treated separately in phylogenetic analyses. Topologies were evaluated by bootstrap analysis of 1000 iterations, and posterior node probabilities were based on 2 million generations and estimated sample sizes over 100 (implemented in MrBayes) [18].

Viruses 2014, 6 1907

4. Conclusions

Mammalian reservoirs of zoonotic viruses typically do not display host restrictions within a given taxonomic order. Also, infection is usually chronic, persistent and subclinical. For example, rodents of multiple genera and species, belonging to four subfamilies in the order Rodentia, serve as reservoirs of hantaviruses in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas and do not exhibit clinical disease or survival disadvantage. In addition, recently, hantaviruses exhibiting far greater genetic diversity have been detected in healthy-appearing shrews and moles representing many genera in six subfamilies within the order Soricomorpha in Eurasia, Africa and North America. Similarly, as mentioned earlier, bat species belonging to both suborders of Chiroptera host hantaviruses without evidence of apparent disease.

However, some might contend that the low prevalence of hantavirus RNA in a few bat species, and the absence of hantavirus infection in the majority of bat species analyzed to date, would argue against a long-standing hantavirus-reservoir host relationship, and instead support spillover or host switching.

That is, the gleaning feeding behavior of some bats, such as Nycteris, presents the possibility of acquired infection from excreta of well-established terrestrial reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, this seems highly improbable because bat-borne hantaviruses are among the most genetically diverse described to date.

With the discovery of divergent hantavirus lineages in three taxonomic orders of placental mammals, there is renewed interest in investigating their genetic diversity, geographic distributions, and evolutionary dynamics [34,35]. Newfound knowledge that insectivorous bats harbor a distinctly divergent lineage of hantaviruses emphasizes the truly complex evolutionary origins and phylogeography of a group of viruses once thought to be restricted to rodents. At this point, it would not be surprising if hantaviruses are found in small mammals belonging to other taxonomic orders, such as Erinaceomorpha (hedgehogs) and even Afrosoricida (tenrecs). Such anticipated discoveries may provide additional insights into the dynamics of hantavirus transmission, potential reassortment of genomes, and molecular determinants of hantavirus pathogenicity. As importantly, a sizable expansion of the hantavirus sequence database would provide valuable tools for refining diagnostic tests and enhancing preparedness for future outbreaks caused by emerging hantaviruses.


This work was supported by U.S. Public Health Service grants R01AI075057 and P20GM103516 from the National Institutes of Health, grant 24405045 from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, grant H25-Shinko-Ippan-008 for Research on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, and grant UE134020ID from the Agency for Defense Development of Korea. The services provided by the Genomics Core Facility, funded partially by the Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence program (P30GM103341), are gratefully acknowledged.

Author Contributions

–  –  –

K.S., D.P., I.V.K. and M.Y.K. provided bat tissues. R.Y. conceived the project, and R.Y. and J.W.S.

provided overall scientific oversight. All authors contributed to the preparation of the final manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.


1. Plyusnin, A.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A. Hantaviruses: Genome structure, expression and evolution. J. Gen. Virol. 1996, 77, 2677–2687.

2. Plyusnin, A.; Beatty, B.J.; Elliott, R.M.; Goldbach, R.; Kormelink, R.; Lundkvist, A.;

Schmaljohn, C.S.; Tesh, R.B. Bunyaviridae. In Virus Taxonomy: Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses; King, A.M.Q., Lefkowitz, E.J., Adams, M.J., Carstens, E.B., Eds.; Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2012; pp. 725–741.

3. Jonsson, C.B.; Figueiredo, L.T.; Vapalahti, O. A global perspective on hantavirus ecology, epidemiology, and disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2010, 23, 412–441.

4. Klempa, B.; Fichet-Calvet, E.; Lecompte, E.; Auste, B.; Aniskin, V.; Meisel, H.; Barriere, P.;

Koivogui, L.; terMeulen, J.; Krü ger, D.H. Novel hantavirus sequences in shrew, Guinea.

Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2007, 13, 520–522.

5. Arai, S.; Song, J.W.; Sumibcay, L.; Bennett, S.N.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Parmenter, C.; Cook, J.A.;

Yates, T.L.; Yanagihara, R. Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.

Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2007, 13, 1420–1423.

6. Song, J.-W.; Kang, H.J.; Song, K.J.; Truong, T.T.; Bennett, S.N.; Arai, S.; Truong, N.U.;

Yanagihara, R. Newfound hantavirus in Chinese mole hantavirus in Chinese mole shrew, Vietnam. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2007, 13, 1784–1787.

7. Song, J.-W.; Gu, S.H.; Bennett, S.N.; Arai, S.; Puorger, M.; Hilbe, M.; Yanagihara, R. Seewis virus, a genetically distinct hantavirus in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus). Virol. J.

2007, 4, 114.

8. Arai, S.; Bennett, S.N.; Sumibcay, L.; Cook, J.A.; Song, J.-W.; Hope, A.; Parmenter, C.;

Nerurkar, V.R.; Yates, T.L.; Yanagihara, R. Phylogenetically distinct hantaviruses in the masked hrew (Sorex cinereus) and dusky shrew (Sorex monticolus) in the United States. Am. J. Trop.

Med. Hyg. 2008, 78, 348–351.

9. Arai, S.; Ohdachi, S.D.; Asakawa, M.; Kang, H.J.; Mocz, G.; Arikawa, J.; Okabe, N.;

Yanagihara, R. Molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus in the Japanese shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008, 105, 16296–16301.

10. Song, J.-W.; Kang, H.J.; Gu, S.H.; Moon, S.S.; Bennett, S.N.; Song, K.-J.; Baek, L.J.; Kim, H.C.;

O’Guinn, M.L.; Chong, S.T.; et al. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). J. Virol. 2009, 83, 6184–6191.

11. Kang, H.J.; Bennett, S.N.; Dizney, L.; Sumibcay, L.; Arai, S.; Ruedas, L.A.; Song, J.-W.;

Yanagihara, R. Host switch during evolution of a genetically distinct hantavirus in the American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii). Virology 2009, 388, 8–14.

Viruses 2014, 6 1909

12. Kang, H.J.; Bennett, S.N.; Sumibcay, L.; Arai, S.; Hope, A.G.; Mocz, G.; Song, J.-W.;

Cook, J.A.; Yanagihara, R. Evolutionary insights from a genetically divergent hantavirus harbored by the European common mole (Talpa europaea). PLoS One 2009, 4, e6149.

13. Kang, H.J.; Arai, S.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Yanagihara, R. Novel hantavirus in the flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus). Vector Borne Zoonot. Dis. 2010, 10, 593–597.

14. Kang, H.J.; Bennett, S.N.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Yanagihara, R. Shared ancestry between a mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents. J. Virol. 2011, 85, 7496–7503.

15. Kang, H.J.; Kadjo, B.; Dubey, S.; Jacquet, F.; Yanagihara, R. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Cô d’Ivoire. Virol. J. 2011, 8, 373.


16. Arai, S.; Gu, S.H.; Baek, L.J.; Tabara, K.; Bennett, S.N.; Oh, H.S.; Takada, N.; Kang, H.J.;

Tanaka-Taya, K.; Morikawa, S.; et al. Divergent ancestral lineages of newfound hantaviruses harbored by phylogenetically related crocidurine shrew species in Korea. Virology 2012, 424, 99–105.

17. Gu, S.H.; Markowski, J.; Kang, H.J.; Hejduk, J.; Sikorska, B.; Liberski, P.P.; Yanagihara, R.

Boginia virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in Poland. Virol. J. 2013, 10, 160.

18. Gu, S.H.; Nicolas, V.; Lalis, A.; Sathirapongsasuti, N.; Yanagihara, R. Complete genome sequence analysis and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2013, 20, 118–123.

19. Radosa, L.; Schlegel, M.; Gebauer, P.; Ansorge, H.; Heroldová M.; Já, nová E.; Stanko, M.;

, Mošanský, L.; Fričová, J.; Pejčoch, M.; et al. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2013, doi:10.1016/ j.meegid.2013.04.008.

Pages:     | 1 || 3 |

Similar works:

«http://oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf3s200366 No online items Guide to the Lowell Davies Papers Finding Aid Authors: James Kenneth White and Bill Payne. © Copyright 2008 Special Collections & University Archives. All rights reserved. 2008-04-08 5500 Campanile Dr. MC 8050 San Diego, CA, 92182-8050 URL: http://library.sdsu.edu/scua Email: scref@rohan.sdsu.edu Phone: 619-594-6791 Guide to the Lowell Davies MS-0046 1 Papers Guide to the Lowell Davies Papers 1911/1988 Special Collections &...»

«hordern house rare books • manuscripts • pa i n t i n g s • prints hordern house rare books • manuscripts • paintings • prints 77 VICTORIA STREET • POTTS POINT • SYDNEY NSW 2011 • AUSTRALIA TELEPHONE (+612) 9356 4411 • rare@hordern.com European Discovery 1538-1843 All prices in Australian dollars SOLINUS, PTOLEMY & POMPONIUS MELA.. $225,000 HERRERA, CEVALLOS & LE MAIRE.. $145,000 [COOK] HAWKESWORTH, John. [COOK] PARKINSON, Sydney. [COOK] WALES, William. DANCE, Nathaniel,...»

«Delaware Department of Education Charter Application for the Delaware Design-Lab High School 2014-2015 School Year Revised September 2012 DELAWARE CHARTER SCHOOL APPLICATION CHARTER SCHOOL APPLICATION Proposed School: Delaware Design-Lab High School Table of Contents School Proposal Overview & Enrollment Projection 0 Proposed School Narrative: Executive Summary 1 Founding Group & School Leadership 4 Education Plan 8 Performance Management 33 Staffing 37 Governance 46 Parent & Community...»

«MAYOR AND COUNCIL REGULAR MEETING August 27, 2013 7:00 P.M.SALUTE TO COLORS Mayor Maio invited all those present to stand in a salute to colors. MAYOR'S STATEMENT AS TO COMPLIANCE WITH P.L. 1975 Adequate Notice of this Meeting has been provided according to the Open Public Meetings Act, Assembly Bill 1030. Notice of this Meeting was included in the Annual Meeting Notice sent to the New Jersey Herald and the Daily Record on January 2, 2013 and was placed on the Official Bulletin Board in the...»

«Generation Gaps in Engineering? by David J. Kim B.S., Computer Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003 Submitted to the System Design and Management Program In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Engineering and Management at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY June 2008 © 2008 David J. Kim All Rights Reserved The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic...»

«Wolfgang E. Ernst Conferences (contributed and invited, most with unrefereed proceedings) 1 Übergangswahrscheinlichkeiten des neutralen Kryptons aus Bogenmessungen, W. E. Ernst and E. Schulz-Gulde, DPG-Frühjahrstagung 1976 in Hannover, Germany. 2 Eigendruckund Starkverbreiterung von roten Kri-Linien, W. E. Ernst, B.-H. Müller und Th. Zaengel, DPG Frühjahrstagung 1977 in Essen, Germany. 3 A Computer Controlled CW Visible-UV-Laser Spektrometer, J. Kasper, C. Pollock, W. E. Ernst, G. K. Ernst,...»

«Speaker Bios – April 29, 2014 Anton van der Merwe Anton van der Merwe, a principal of Alta Via Consulting, has specialized in ERP system implementations with an emphasis on management accounting and decision support for twenty five years. Anton has been actively engaged in advancing principles for management accounting and has published numerous articles, most notably the Case for RCA series, the Management Accounting Philosophy series and the Debating the Principles series. His consulting...»

«Regime-Dependent Determinants of the Euro Area Sovereign CDS Spread Hans Blommestein∗ Sylvester Eijffinger† Zongxin Qian‡§,, April 12, 2015 Abstract We study the determinants of sovereign credit default swap spreads in five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) in the post-Lehman Brothers period. We find regime switching in the determination process. Particularly, the sovereign CDS market switches from a tranquil regime with lower volatility and market...»

«COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTING ANNUAL REPORT 2014-2015 Advisory Committee Members: Jeffrey Gordon, Chair Marshall Bozeman Stephen Christensen Ellen Garber Alessandra Giannini Eric LeSuer Brennon Mendez Sameer Mishra Gail O’Neill Anika Rahman Ailsa Röell Maureen Ryan Executive Vice President and CFO: Anne Sullivan, ex officio, non-voting Associate Director, Socially Responsible Investing: Katherine Chung ex officio, non-voting Table of Contents I....»

«1 © 2011 Louisiana Baptist Convention Revised 2013 Permission is granted to reproduce and/or translate this booklet for non-commercial purposes only. This copyright notice must be included with each copy. Unless otherwise noted, all Scripture quotations are taken from the Holman Christian ® Standard Bible, copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 by Holman Bible Publishers. Used by permission. Scriptures marked KJV are from the King James Version. Portions of the content for Awaken have...»

«Valley Bible Church – Sermon Transcript Do Not Be Bound Together With Unbelievers 2 Corinthians 6:14-16 Part Two Saving faith produces a radical transformation in respect to every aspect of a person’s being. Christians, as we have already seen in 2 Corinthians 5:17, are new creatures in Christ for whom “the old things [have] passed away; behold, new things have come.” When we place our faith in Christ, we are no longer the same people we used to be and neither are we in the same...»

«State of Michigan DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK Published 2012 MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK Effective D AT E TB D, 2 01 2 No reproduction or use of this document outside the Department of Corrections is allowed without the expressed consent of the Michigan Department of Corrections TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION MISSION AND VISION STATEMENTS OF THE MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS DEFINITIONS GENERAL INFORMATION Equal Employment Opportunity...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.thesis.dislib.info - Online materials, documents

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.