«IAEA-TECDOC-1553 Low and Intermediate Level Waste Repositories: Socioeconomic Aspects and Public Involvement Proceedings of a workshop held in ...»
⎯ Construction phase: repository and related infrastructure construction and impact management implementation, including community liaison.
⎯ Operation phase: waste acceptance and emplacement in the repository and impact management implementation, including community liaison.
⎯ Closure phase: final repository sealing and removal of disposal support structures.
⎯ Post-closure institutional control phase: environmental monitoring, surveillance and site maintenance with restricted access to the site.
4. POLICY, PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND COST CONSIDERATIONSThe national policy in the area of radioactive waste disposal stems from the responsibility to isolate radioactive wastes from the human and natural environment, in a safe and effective manner, both now and in the future. The general principles of radioactive waste management, recommended by the IAEA, are presently included in the specific national legislation and regulatory documents. This is helping ANDRAD in developing an adequate specific legal framework regarding the development and implementation of radioactive waste disposal.
The nature and extent of public involvement and participation in near-surface disposal of LILW at Saligny depends actually upon the existing national legal and political framework and the existing cultural context. ANDRAD should organize in the near future audiences for public involvement activities and include representatives from local communities and administrative units (local, regional and national), government officials, regulatory authorities, scientific community, public interest groups, environmental organizations, industry and trade groups and the news media.
Cost refers to direct expenditures during all repository life phases and is an important provision in the existing draft of the law for the Fund for radioactive waste and decommissioning. This draft will be promoted to the Parliament for approval. Evaluation of the costs for siting, development, operating, closure and post closure is a very important matter and should include applicable costs for public involvement, non-radiological impact assessment and impact management. It is very clear that financial issues will strongly influence the timing of repository development as well as the possible need to rely on shortor long term storage as an on-going management option.
5. POTENTIAL IMPACTS DURING THE REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE
A broad range of socioeconomic and other non-radiological impacts could arise during the repository life cycle. The type and magnitude of these impacts will be strongly influenced by the size and location of the repository, types and amounts of waste to be disposed, selected repository technology, number of workers employed, local community characteristics, proximity of the populated areas in the region, existing and future land uses, as well as other specific project requirements and circumstances. All this impact assessment will be considered in establishing ANDRAD’s communication strategy and programme, for the near future.
The elements composing the impact assessment, other than the radiological ones, includes discussions on social, economic and environmental impacts, at least at local and regional levels, and should be associated with the life cycle of the Saligny. Accurate information, establishing the baseline setting, will form the basis for identifying and assessing potential repository life cycle impacts. Different important factors such as natural environment (land resources, air quality, groundwater resources, surface water resources, etc.) social conditions (demographic, social structure, community health, etc.), economic conditions (local economic activity, employment and labour supply), built environment (housing, education, community services, and utility availability) and land use should be used to characterize the natural and human environment.
6. IMPACT MANAGEMENT
By definition, impact management means the coordinated application of measures designed to mitigate (avoid or reduce the impact), enhance, compensate, monitor and to ensure continuing liaison. Impact management planning means development and application of the appropriate measures for all the factors considered above and begins during the impact management process.
Once potential changes in the natural environment are identified, impact management planning should be focused on meeting requirements of existing legislation, standards and specific regulatory requirements. In the human environment, once potential socioeconomic changes are identified, the initial consideration is the amenability to impact management measures. Impacts that cannot be avoided or reduced through changes in the design of the repository should be addressed through comprehensive impact management measures. These could be developed in negotiation with the potentially affected community.
Possible socioeconomic and other non-radiological impacts are important considerations during the life cycle of the Saligny near surface disposal facility, covering the period from initial planning phase through siting, construction, operation, and closure, to the post-closure institutional control phase. Socioeconomic and non-radiological impact management measures should be established and implemented to eliminate or reduce the potential adverse impacts during the repository life cycle. Measures may also be planned and employed to enhance beneficial impacts of repository development and operation.
Cost considerations should represent an important national policy matter with regard to repository development, operation and closure. Waste disposal funding issues could have a strong impact on timing of the implementation of the selected option. Funding requirements may be significantly higher if the repository pre-construction process is delayed.
Public involvement in impact assessment and impact management planning should be an important consideration for ANDRAD. This involvement and input, through appropriate mechanisms such as local committees, is particularly important in the project development and operation of the repository.
Finally, it is important to note that familiarity of the members of the local community with nuclear operations at the existing Cernavoda NPP represented the most important factor used in promoting the siting of the Saligny near-surface repository. This co-location option was intentionally selected in order to accelerate the repository development process, while minimizing project costs and the non-radiological impacts.
REFERENCES Parliament of Romania, Law No.111/1996 on safe deployment of nuclear activities in Romania.
 Parliament of Romania, Law No.105/1999 on Joint Convention on safe management of spent nuclear fuel and safe management of radioactive waste.
 Parliament of Romania, Law No.320/2003 on approval of Ordinance No.11/2003 on safe management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, including final disposal.
 CNCAN/NSR-01, Fundamental norms on radiological safety (2000).
 CNCAN/NDR-01, Fundamental norms on management of radioactive waste (2004).
 CNCAN/NDR-02, Norms on release of materials resulted from licensed practices in nuclear field (2004).
 Project PHARE 4.10/94 - Technical Basis and Methodological Approach for Waste Acceptance Criteria, PHASE 3: Assist in Development of Outline Waste Acceptance Criteria for Romania; APPENDIX 3: Outline design of the proposed Salgny nearsurface repository; APPENDIX 4: Preliminary safety assessment of Saligny nearsurface repository.
 INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERY AGENCY, Socioeconomic and other Nonradiological Impacts of the Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste, IAEATECDOC-1308, IAEA, Vienna (2002).
Long term storage of institutional radioactive waste: Ecological and social issues S.A. Dmitriev SIA RADON, Moscow, Russian Federation Abstract A State Unitary Enterprise Scientific & Industrial Association RADON, Moscow, Russia has been collecting, transporting, treating and long term storing LILRW generated in scientific and social institutions and in some industrial enterprises of Moscow and 11 regions of the Central Russia abutting the Moscow region for about 45 years. For treating the radioactive waste, RADON applies incineration, compaction, cementation and vitrification. The main aim of such treatment is waste reduction with obtaining monolith (chemically resistant) products being fit for long term storage.
According to the IAEA’s basic principles of the radioactive waste management, RADON carries out activities on environmental, personnel and nearby living public health protection. Due to proper measures for environmental protection, the release of radionuclides is less than 8·10-6 % of the maximum permissible annual emission into the air and summary discharge of radionuclides into sewage of 14 % of the maximum permissible annual discharge. Effective dose rates in the radiationcontrol area do not exceed natural ionizing radiation background. Levels of man-made contamination of grounds and air in the radiation-control area are caused by global fallout. The report will present data describing social aspects of the RADON’s personnel and public living in the radiation-control area nearby the disposal site. There will be given estimations of the personality structure and agespecific maturity. Long term observation has resulted in evidence that the RADON’s disposal site operation does not affect the nearby environment or the public health.
A State Unitary Enterprise Scientific & Industrial Association RADON, Moscow, Russia conducts the following activities: collecting, transporting, treating and long term storing LILRW generated in scientific and social institutions and in some industrial enterprises of Moscow and 11 regions of the Central Russia abutting the Moscow region. During 45 years, the technological methods applied for the institutional radioactive waste treatment have gradually been improved from traditional cementing or just on-site-storage up to more complicated ones of creating chemically stable forms by vitrification and obtaining metal or ceramic matrices by melting. Currently, the institutional radioactive waste treatment and long term storage in RADON include nearly 18 technological processes (cementing, incineration, plasma chemical treatment, ash residue melting, ion-exchange resin thermochemical treatment and etc.).
RADON carries out activities on environmental, personnel and nearby living public health protection according to the IAEA’s basic principles of the radioactive waste management. The RADON’s authority has always understood the importance of a comprehensive approach to solving the issues of waste management. The comprehensive approach means solving not only technical issues but taking in consideration socioeconomic aspects. The socioeconomic aspects are many-sided and can include the following: environmental protection, public healthcare and rehabilitation, public relations, taxation, investments, financing and sponsoring social programmes, etc. All these features predetermine the attitude of the public in the area near the disposal site.
2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT
The Environmental Protection System includes features for every aspect of protection.
Modern technologies are used for radioactive waste treatment and long term storage. Gaseous emission and sewage disposal purification is done to remove radionuclides. The system also includes the set up of sanitary protective and radiation-control areas and state environmental control posts.
The sanitary protective and radiation-control areas of the RADON disposal site make 2.5 km and 7 km accordingly. In these areas there are two urban-type settlements (Novy and Remmash) and several villages. What is more important is that the Novy settlement foundation was financed by RADON. The population of this urban-type settlement, consisting mainly of the RADON’s personnel, is about 5000.
As it can be seen from data in Table 1, the air pollution with radioactive substances was insignificant regarding the maximum permissible emission (MPE). As for sewage disposal, its annual contamination did not exceed 14 % of the maximum permissible discharge (MPD).
It should be noted that the fall-out, γ-emission dose rate and absorbed dose in the radiationcontrol area did not differ from ones of the controlled area and the average values of the Moscow region. Figure 1 represents a radiation exposure structure of population living in the radiation-control area (Novy settlement).
The additional exposure from the treatment of radioactive waste makes up less than 0.1 % of the summary exposure dose caused by natural radiation background and X-ray examinations (Figure 1). As to air pollution with harmful substances including dust and chemicals, it did not exceed the permissible hygienic regulations for air in the populated areas and drinking water quality conformed to current sanitary requirements. Thus in the whole, hygiene and sanitary conditions of the population living in the settlements can be considered as good enough.
Space radiation, gamma background, radon and its daughter products, inner exposure because of potassium-40 and radium-226) X-ray examination radiation dose
Activity of object for radioactive waste treatment and long-term storage
3. PERSONNEL AND NEARBY LIVING PUBLIC HEALTH AND SOCIAL ASPECTSIt is obvious that the public health conditions directly reflect a level of protective measures being undertaken by authorities of hazardous productions in the area. The great majority of the RADON personnel are people living nearby the radiation-control area of the disposal site.
Therefore, the survey and analysis of all the nearby living public groups health condition are an essential social activity of the RADON authorities.