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«INSTITUTE Codebook Version 6 - Mar 2016 Copyright © University of Gothenburg, V-Dem Institute, University of Notre Dame, Kellogg Institute. All ...»

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Version 6 - Mar 2016

Copyright © University of Gothenburg, V-Dem Institute,

University of Notre Dame, Kellogg Institute. All rights reserved.

Principal Investigators Project Managers

Michael Coppedge – U. of Notre Dame David Altman – Pontificia U. Católica de Chile

John Gerring – Boston University Michael Bernhard – University of Florida

Staffan I. Lindberg – U. of Gothenburg M. Steven Fish – UC Berkeley Svend-Erik Skaaning – Aarhus University Adam Glynn – Emory University Allen Hicken – University of Michigan Research Fellows Carl Henrik Knutsen – University of Oslo Eitan Tzelgov – U of East Anglia & U. of Gothenburg Kelly McMann – Case Western Reserve Yi-ting Wang – National Cheng Kung University & U. Pamela Paxton – U. of Texas of Gothenburg Daniel Pemstein – North Dakota State Kyle L. Marquardt – U. of Gothenburg Jeffrey Staton – Emory University Anna Luehrmann – U. of Gothenburg Jan Teorell – (former PI) Lund University Rachel Sigman – U of Gothenburg & Naval Brigitte Zimmerman – University of North Postgraduate School Carolina & U. of Gothenburg Data Analysts Program Managers Frida Andersson – U. of Gothenburg Josefine Pernes – U. of Gothenburg Valeriya Mechkova – U. of Gothenburg Natalia Stepanova – U. of Gothenburg Farhad Miri – U. of Gothenburg Suggested citation: Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Staffan I. Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jan Teorell, with David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Jeffrey Staton, Brigitte Zimmerman, Rachel Sigman, Frida Andersson, Valeriya Mechkova, and Farhad Miri. 2016. “V-Dem Codebook v6.” Varieties of Democracy (VDem) Project.

Table of Contents Abbreviated Explanatory Notes

Part I. V-Dem Democracy Indices and Indicators

1 Democracy Indices

2 Mid-Level Democracy Indices

V-Dem Indicators

3 Elections

4 Political Parties

5 Direct Democracy

6 The Executive

7 The Legislature

8 Deliberation

9 The Judiciary

10 Civil Liberty

11 Sovereignty

12 Civil Society

13 The Media

14 Political Equality

Part II. Other Democracy Indices and Indicators

Non-V-Dem Sources

15 Ordinal Versions of the V-Dem Indices

16 Database of Political Institutions

17 Bilinski

18 Comparative Constitutional Project

19 Political Regimes

20 Freedom House

21 World Bank Governance Indicators

22 Election Quality and International Observation

23 Lexical Index of Electoral Democracy

24 Haber and Menaldo

25 Nelda

26 Unified Democracy Score

27 Political Institutions and Political Events

28 Polity IV

29 Others

Part III. Background Factors

30 Education

31 Geography

32 Economics

33 Socioeconomic Status

34 Natural Resource Wealth

35 Infrastructure

36 Demography

37 Conflict



APPENDIX B: Post-Survey Questionnaire

APPENDIX C: Background Notes

APPENDIX D: Structure of Aggregations – All Indices and Indicators

–  –  –

Explanatory Notes

Structure of the codebook

What's new in comparison to version 5 of the codebook

Variable types

Variable versions – suffixes

Number of variables

Variable tags

Key terms

Project manager









Cross-coder aggregation



Filename protocol

Suggested citations


Part I. V-Dem Democracy Indices and Indicators

1 Democracy Indices

1.1 Electoral democracy index (D) (v2x_polyarchy)

1.2 Additive polyarchy index (API) (v2x_api)

1.3 Multiplicative polyarchy index (MPI) (v2x_mpi)

1.4 Liberal democracy index (D) (v2x_libdem)

1.5 Liberal component index (D) (v2x_liberal)

1.6 Participatory democracy index (D) (v2x_partipdem)

1.7 Participatory component index (D) (v2x_partip)

1.8 Deliberative democracy index (D) (v2x_delibdem)

1.9 Deliberative component index (D) (v2xdl_delib)

1.10 Egalitarian democracy index (D) (v2x_egaldem)

1.11 Egalitarian component index (D) (v2x_egal)

2 Mid-Level Democracy Indices

2.1 Electoral component index (D) (v2x_EDcomp_thick)

2.2 Freedom of association (thick) index (D) (v2x_frassoc_thick)

2.3 Expanded freedom of expression index (D) (v2x_freexp_thick)

2.4 Freedom of expression index (D) (v2x_freexp)

2.5 Alternative sources of information index (D) (v2xme_altinf)

2.6 Share of population with suffrage (D) (v2x_suffr)

2.7 Clean elections index (D) (v2xel_frefair)

2.8 Elected executive index (D) (v2x_accex)

2.9 Equality before the law and individual liberty index (D) (v2xcl_rol)

2.10 Judicial constraints on the executive index (D) (v2x_jucon)

2.11 Legislative constraints on the executive index (D) (v2xlg_legcon)

2.12 Civil society participation index (D) (v2x_cspart)

2.13 Direct popular vote index (D) (v2xdd_dd)

2.14 Local government index (D) (v2xel_locelec)

2.15 Regional government index (D) (v2xel_regelec)

2.16 Equal protection index (D) (v2xeg_eqprotec)

2.17 Equal distribution of resources index (D) (v2xeg_eqdr)

2.18 Core civil society index (D) (v2xcs_ccsi)

2.19 Party system institutionalization index (D) (v2xps_party)

2.20 Women political empowerment index (D) (v2x_gender)

2.21 Women civil liberties index (D) (v2x_gencl)

2.22 Women civil society participation index (D) (v2x_gencs)

2.23 Women political participation index (D) (v2x_genpp)

2.24 Electoral regime index (D) (v2x_elecreg)

2.25 Executive electoral regime index (D) (v2xex_elecreg)

2.26 Legislative electoral regime index (D) (v2xlg_elecreg)

2.27 Legislative or constituent assembly election (D) (v2xel_elecparl)

2.28 Legislature closed down or aborted (D) (v2xlg_leginter)

2.29 Presidential election (D) (v2xel_elecpres)

2.30 Chief executive no longer elected (D) (v2x_hosinter)

2.31 Political corruption index (D) (v2x_corr)

2.32 Public sector corruption index (D) (v2x_pubcorr)

2.33 Executive corruption index (D) (v2x_execorr)

2.34 Divided party control of legislature index (D) (v2x_lgdivparctrl)

2.35 Division of power index (D) (v2x_feduni)

2.36 Civil liberties index (D) (v2x_civlib)

2.37 Private liberties index (D) (v2x_clpriv)

2.38 Political liberties index (D) (v2x_clpol)

2.39 Physical violence index (D) (v2x_clphy)

V-Dem Indicators

3 Elections

3.1 Elections introduction (A) (B) (C) (v2elintro)

3.2 Non-election specific coding introduction (A) (B) (C) (v2elintro1)

3.3 Candidate restriction by ethnicity, race, religion, or language (A) (v2elrstrct)................. 72

3.4 HOS restriction by ethnicity, race, religion, or language (A) (v2elrsthos)

3.5 HOG restriction by ethnicity, race, religion, or language (A) (v2elrsthog)

3.6 Disclosure of campaign donations (C) (v2eldonate, *_osp, *_ord)

3.7 Public campaign finance (C) (v2elpubfin, *_osp, *_ord)

3.8 Minimum voting age (A) (v2elage)

3.9 Compulsory voting (A) (v2elcomvot)

3.10 Suffrage level (A) (v2elgvsuflvl)

3.11 Percentage of population with suffrage (A) (v2elsuffrage)

3.12 Resident noncitizens who cannot vote (C) (v2elnoncit)

3.13 Adult citizens with right to vote % (A) (v2eladltvt)

3.14 Female suffrage restricted (A) (v2elfemrst)

3.15 EMB autonomy (C) (v2elembaut, *_osp, *_ord)

3.16 EMB capacity (C) (v2elembcap, *_osp, *_ord)

3.17 Election-specific questions introduction (A) (B) (C) (v2elintro2)

3.18 Election type (A*) (v2eltype)

3.19 Presidential election aborted (D) (v2x_hosabort)

3.20 Legislative or constituent assembly election aborted (D) (v2x_legabort)

3.21 Elections multiparty (C) (v2elmulpar, *_osp, *_ord)

3.21.1 Exectuive elections multiparty (C) (v2elmulpar_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.21.2 Legislative elections multiparty (C) (v2elmulpar_leg, *_osp, *_ord)

3.22 Election voter registry (C) (v2elrgstry, *_osp, *_ord)

3.22.1 Executive election voter registry (C) (v2elrgstry_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.22.2 Legislative election voter registry (C) (v2elrgstry_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.23 Election male suffrage in practice (C) (v2elmalsuf)

3.23.1 Executive executive election male suffrage in practice (C) (v2elmalsuf_ex)............ 83 3.23.2 Legislative election male suffrage in practice (C) (v2elmalsuf_leg)

3.24 Election female suffrage in practice (C) (v2elfemsuf)

3.24.1 Executive election female suffrage in practice (C) (v2elfemsuf_ex)

3.24.2 Legislative election female suffrage in practice (C) (v2elfemsuf_leg)

3.25 Election suffrage in practice (D) (v2elprasuf)

3.25.1 Executive election suffrage in practice (D) (v2elprasuf_ex)

3.25.2 Legislative election suffrage in practice (D) (v2elprasuf_leg)

3.26 Male suffrage (A) (v2msuffrage)

3.26.1 Executive male suffrage (A) (v2msuffrage_ex)

3.26.2 Legislative male suffrage (A) (v2msuffrage_leg)

3.27 Female suffrage (A) (v2fsuffrage)

3.27.1 Executive female suffrage (A) (v2fsuffrage_ex)

3.27.2 Legislative female suffrage (A) (v2fsuffrage_leg)

3.28 Suffrage (A) (v2asuffrage)

3.28.1 Executive suffrage (A) (v2asuffrage_ex)

3.28.2 Legislative suffrage (A) (v2asuffrage_leg)

3.29 Election vote buying (C) (v2elvotbuy, *_osp, *_ord)

3.29.1 Executive election vote buying (C) (v2elvotbuy_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.29.2 Legislative election vote buying (C) (v2elvotbuy_leg, *_osp, *_ord)

3.30 Election other voting irregularities (C) (v2elirreg, *_osp, *_ord)

3.30.1 Executive election other voting irregularities (C) (v2elirreg_ex, *_osp, *_ord)....... 88 3.30.2 Legislative election other voting irregularities (C) (v2elirreg_leg, *_osp, *_ord)..... 88

3.31 Election government intimidation (C) (v2elintim, *_osp, *_ord)

3.31.1 Executive election government intimidation (C) (v2elintim_ex, *_osp, *_ord)....... 89 3.31.2 Legislative election government intimidation (C) (v2elintim_leg, *_osp, *_ord)..... 89

3.32 Election other electoral violence (C) (v2elpeace*_osp, *_ord)

3.32.1 Executive election other electoral violence (C) (v2elpeace_ex,*_osp, *_ord)......... 90 3.32.2 Legislative election other electoral violence (C) (v2elpeace_leg,*_osp, *_ord)...... 90

3.33 Election boycotts (C) (v2elboycot, *_osp, *_ord)

3.33.1 Executive election boycotts (C) (v2elboycot_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.33.2 Legislative election boycotts (C) (v2elboycot_leg, *_osp, *_ord)

3.34 Election free campaign media (C) (v2elfrcamp, *_osp, *_ord)

3.35 Election paid campaign advertisements (C) (v2elpdcamp, *_osp, *_ord)

3.35.1 Executive election paid campaign advertisements (C) (v2elpdcamp_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.35.2 Legislative election paid campaign advertisements (C) (v2elpdcamp_leg, *_osp, *_ord)

3.36 Election paid interest group media (C) (v2elpaidig, *_osp, *_ord)

3.36.1 Executive election paid interest group media (C) (v2elpaidig_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.36.2 Legislative election paid interest group media (C) (v2elpaidig_leg, *_osp, *_ord).. 92

3.37 Election domestic election monitors (B) (v2eldommon)

3.37.1 Executive election domestic election monitors (B) (v2eldommon_ex)

3.37.2 Legislative election domestic election monitors (B) (v2eldommon_leg)................. 93

3.38 Election international monitors (A) (v2elintmon)

3.38.1 Executive election international monitors (A) (v2elintmon_ex)

3.38.2 Legislative election international monitors (A) (v2elintmon_leg)

3.39 Election international monitors denied (A) (v2elmonden)

3.39.1 Executive election international monitors denied (A) (v2elmonden_ex)................. 94 3.39.2 Legislative election international monitors denied (A) (v2elmonden_leg).............. 94

3.40 Fraud allegations by Western monitors (A) (v2elwestmon)

3.40.1 Executive western election monitors present (A) (v2elwestmon_ex)

3.40.2 Legislative western election monitors present (A) (v2elwestmon_leg)

3.41 Monitors refuse to be present (A) (v2elmonref)

3.41.1 Executive monitors refuse to be present (NELDA) (E) (v2elmonref_ex).................. 95 3.41.2 Legislative monitors refuse to be present (NELDA) (E) (v2elmonref_leg)................ 95

3.42 Election free and fair (C) (v2elfrfair, *_osp, *_ord)

3.42.1 Executive election free and fair (C) (v2elfrfair_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

3.42.2 Legislative election free and fair (C) (v2elfrfair_leg, *_osp, *_ord)

3.43 Election VAP turnout (A) (v2elvaptrn)

3.43.1 Executive election VAP turnout (A) (v2elvaptrn_ex)

3.43.2 Legislative election VAP turnout (A) (v2elvaptrn_leg)

3.44 Election turnout (A) (v2eltrnout)

3.44.1 Executive election turnout (A) (v2eltrnout_ex)

3.44.2 Legislative election turnout (A) (v2eltrnout_leg)

3.45 Election executive turnover nominal (B) (v2eltvrexn)

3.46 Election executive turnover ordinal (A) (v2eltvrexo)

3.47 Election HOG turnover ordinal (A) (v2elturnhog)

3.48 Election HOS turnover ordinal (A) (v2elturnhos)

3.49 Election losers accept results (C) (v2elaccept, *_osp, *_ord)

3.49.1 Executive election losers accept results (C) (v2elaccept_ex, *_osp, *_ord)

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