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«Tahir Kamran• Abstract This paper seeks to delineate the process that culminated into the proliferation of Deobandi version of Islam in the Punjab ...»

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According to W.C. Smith, Dar ul Ulum was “next to the Azhar of Cairo, the most important and respected theological academy of the Muslim World”. See W.C. Smith, Modern Islam in India (London, 1946), p. 320.

15Kenneth W. Jones, The Cambridge History of India: Socio-Religious Reform Movements in British India (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p.57.

Hassan N. Gardezi, “Religion, Ethnicity, and State Power in Pakistan: The Question of Class” in Douglas Allen, ed., Religion and Political Conflict in South Asia (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2004), p.76.

Gilmartin, Empire and Islam, p.53.

W.C. Smith, “The ‘Ulama’ in Indian Politics”, in C.H. Philips, ed., Politics and Society in India (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1963), pp.42-3.

Gilmartin, Empire and Islam, p.53.

Jones, The Cambridge History of India, p.57.

Meston to Hardinge, dated 25 March 1915, Hardinge Papers (89), Cambridge University Library, quoted in Francis Robinson, Separatism Among Indian Muslims: The Politics of the United Province’s Muslims 1860-1923 (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994), p.266.

Jones, The Cambridge History of India, p.58.

Barbara Daly Metcalf, Islamic Revival in British India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), p.95. For further reference see, Rashid Ahmed Jullundri, Bartanvi hind mein muslamanon ka nizam-i-taleem (Lahore: Idara-i-Saqafat-i-Islamia,n.d.), pp.141-184.

Ibid.

Mumtaz Ahmad, Madrassa Education in Pakistan and Bangladesh, p.102. website, http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Edited%20Volumes/ReligiousRadicalism/PagesfromReligious RadicalismandSecurityinSouthAsiach5.pdf, accessed on 27 September 2007.

Ibid, p.103.

Metcalf, Islamic Revival in British India, p.96.

Ibid, p.97.

Ibid.

Syed Mehbub Rizvi, Tarikh-i-Dar–u-Ulum Deoband: Bar- i- saghir key musalmanon ka sab sey bara karnama (Lahore: Idara-i-Islamyat, 2005), p.152.

Metcalf, Islamic Revival in British India, p.236.

Gilmartin, Empire and Islam, p.54.

See that map indicating the spread of Deobandi madaris in the Punjab in Metcalf, Islamic Revival in British, p.134.

Saleem Masur Khalid, Deeni madaris mein taaleem:kaifiat, masail, imkanat (Islamabad:

Institute of Policy Studies, 2004), p.101.

Akhter Rahi, Tazkirah-i-ulema-i-Punjab, vol:ii (Lahore: Maktaba-i-Rehmania, 1998), p.159.

Ibid.

Raipur is a small town near Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) where Shah Abdul Rahim Raipur established Khanqah-i-Aliya Rahimia Raipur which, later on, became one of the leading centres of Deobandi learning. Shah Saeed Ahmed Raipuri, the fourth Sheikh after Abdul Rahim, replicated it in Lahore by the name of Idara Rahimia Ulum-i-Qurania in 2001. See for details Mufti Abdul Khaliq Azad, Mashaikh-i-Raipur: Khanqah-i-Aliya Rahimia Raipur aur mashaikh Raipur ka taaruf (Lahore: Dar ul Tehqiq wal Ishaat, 2006), p.199.

Ibid,p.198.

For a detailed biographical account of Ubaidullah Sindhi, see Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi, in Mufti Abdul Khaliq Azad, ed., Khutbat wa maqalat, (Lahore: Dar ul Tehqiq wa Ishaat, 2002), pp.19-87.

For detail see I.H. Qureshi, A Short History of Pakistan (Karachi: University of Karachi, 1988), pp.839-40.

See for details Maulana Muhammad Ali, The Ahmadiyyah Movement (Translated and Edited by S. Muhammad Tuffail) (Lahore: Ahmadiyyah Anjuman Ishaat Islam, 1973).

See Jan Baz Mirza, Karwan-i-Ahrar, vol.i (Lahore: Maktaba-i-Tabsara, 1975), pp.81-84.

For details see Taj ud Din Ludhyanvi, Ahrar Aur Tehrik-e-Kashmir 1932 (Lahore: Maktaba-iMajlis-e-Ahrar Islam, Pakistan, 1968).

For details on Khatam-i-Nabuvat see, Report of The Court of Inquiry constituted under Punjab Act 11 of 1954 to enquire into the Punjab Disturbances of 1953(Lahore: Superintendent, Government printing press, Punjab, 1954).

Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori (1886-1962) was born in a small town ‘Jalal’ in Gujranwala District. The town is situated towards east of Gaghaar Railway Station. His father Sheikh Habib Ullah converted to Islam from Sikhism and adhered to Chishtia order. Ahmed Ali had three brothers, Hafiz Muhammad Ali, Maulvi Aziz Ahmed and Hakim Rashid Ahmed. See Hafiz Qari

Fayuz ur Rehman, Sheikh ul Tafsir Hazrat Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori aur un key khulfa (Lahore:

Pakistan Book Centre Urdu Bazaar, n.d), pp.19-27. Also see Abdullah Malik, Dastan-i-Khawadai-Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori (Lahore: Urdu Bazaar, 2005).

Ibid, p.23.

See Hafiz Muhammad Akbar Shah Bokhari, Akabir-i-Ulema-i-Deoband (Lahore: Idara-iIslamiat,1999), p.249.

“Almi anjuman-i-khudam ud din ka seh mahi ijtamah”, The Daily Ausaf (April 2007, Lahore).

Abdul Rashid Arshad, Bees barrey musalman (Lahore: Maktaba-i-Rashidia, 2006), p.673.

Hafiz Qari Fayuz ur Rehman, Sheikh ul Tafsir Hazrat Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori aur un key khulfa, p.42.

Ibid,pp.41-42.

Interview with Prof. Mazhar Moin, Principal Oriental College, Punjab University, Lahore (August 2007, Lahore).

Maulana Muhammad and Maulana Muhammad Abdullah both were brothers from Ballia walli, district Ludhiana. Abdullah earned considerable acclaim as a scholar. Sat at the feet of Muhammad Hassan Amritsari, Mehmud ul Hassan and Anwar Shah Kashmiri as student of hadith. Akhtar Rahi, Tazkira-i-ulma-i-Punjab, pp.346-47.

Mujahid Hussaini states that according to Prophet’s one of the traditions “re-incarnation of Messih (Jesus Christ or Hazrat Issah) would come to pass at a place by the name of Ludh”.





Hence, Ghulam Ahmed chose Ludhiana for the final announcement of his prophethood. See Ulma-i-Deoband: Ahid saz shakhsiat, p.377.

Khanqah Sirajia is one of only two Deobandi Khanqahs in the Punjab other at Sargodha by the name of Khanqah-i-Aliya Raipur.

Maulana Mujahid ul Hussaini, Ulma-i-Deoband: ahid saz sakhsiat (Faisalabad: Seerat Markaz, 2004), p.378.

Ibid,p.207.

Interview with Rana Iqtidar Abbas, a local resident of Sahiwal (August 2007, Lahore) See Website, http://www.khairulmadaris.com.pk/e-branches.htm. assessed on 15 September 2007.

Even the name of the madrissa “Khairul Madaris” was suggested by Ashraf Ali Thanvi. Hafiz Akbar Shah Bokhari, Akabir-i-Ulema-i-Deoband, p.230.

Ibid.

“The State of Sectarianism in Pakistan”, Asia Report, No.95 (Brussels: International Crisis Group, 18 April 2005), p.15.

Hafiz Akbar Shah Bokhari, Akabir-i-Ulema-i-Deoband, p.231.

Maulana Muhammad Sharif Jullunduri (second son of Khair Muhammad) took over as an administrator of Khair ul Ulum after the Maulana Khair Muhammad’s demise in 1970. He died in Mecca on 7 September 1981. It, therefore, fell on the young shoulders of Hanif Jullunduri to manage the affairs of the seminary. Ibid., p.444.

Since independence, the JUI has developed strong roots in Baluchistan and the Frontier. As a result, it has polled more consistently than the other religious parties. It formed coalition governments with the NAP in both provinces, although these were dismissed by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. This experience led the JUI to take its place in the anti-PPP Pakistan National Alliance in

1977. However, the JUI under Maulana Fazlur Rehman’s leadership distanced itself from the Zia regime, and took its place in the eleven-party Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD) launched in February 1981. Five years later, Maulana Fazl ur Rehman was appointed its convener. Despite the collapse of the MRD before the 1988 elections, the JUI remained in opposition to the IJI and captured eight seats in the National Assembly. The JUI remains opposed to the Islamist approach of the JI, but its greatest rivalry is with the Barelvi and Shia Islamic groupings. Ian Talbot, Pakistan: A Modern History (London: Hurst & Company, 2005) p.451.

From 1988 to 2000 the number of religious schools increased by 236 percent. Majority of these schools belonged to the Sunni-Deobandi denomination. See for details, Tariq Rahman, Denizens of Alien World: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 77-98.

The apprehensions of the Arab rulers were somewhat assuaged when Prime Minister Z.A.

Bhutto (1926-1979) purged his party of the leftist elements. S.V.R. Nasr, “The Rise of Sunni Militancy in Pakistan: The Changing Role of Islamism and the Ulema in Society and Politics” in Modern Asian Studies, 34(1) (2000):142.

Ibid.

Ibid, p.44.

Ibid.

Barbara D Metcalf, Islamic Contestations: Essays on Muslims in India and Pakistan (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2004), p.276.

Shahid Javed Burki, A Revision History of Pakistan (Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1998), pp.82-83.

See for details Jamal Malik, Colonization of Islam: Dissolution of Traditional Institutions in Pakistan (Lahore, Vanguard Books, 1996), pp. 85-119.

Maulana Mufti Muhammad Hassan was born in Malpur, near Hassan Abdal. He got his early education in his native town and then proceeded to Dar ul Ulum Deoband and became a worthy disciple of Ashraf Ali Thanvi. He learnt hadith from Anwar Shah Kashmiri. Later on, he moved to Amritsari and took up teaching assignment at a well known seminary Jamia Naumania. On partition he migrated to Lahore and founded Jamia Ashrafia which is a prime Deobandi seminary in the Punjab. See for further details The Daily Jang, special edition, (27 April 2007, Lahore).

Muhammad Amir Rana, A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan, translated by Saba Ansari (Lahore:

Mashal, 2004), p.522.

For details see website, http:ashrafia.org.pk/jamia.htm, assessed on 21 September 2007.

Hamid Mian got religious instruction from scholars like Abdus Sami Deobandi, Abdul Khaliq Madni, Mufti Muhammad Shafi and Hussain Ahmed Madni. See Hafiz Muhammad Akbar Shah Bokhari, Akabir-i-Ulam-i-Deoband, p.457.

According to a report compiled by the Interior Ministry, the number of students in those seminaries were around 1,500,000 by 2003.

9Saleem Mansur Khalid, Deeni madaris mein taaleem, p.150.

See Herald (October 1996, Karachi), p.56.

See website, http://www.khairulmadaris.com.pk/e-branches.htm, assessed on 17 September 2007.

Ayesha Siddiqua Agha, “Bahawalpur’s Two Ends”, website, http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp, assessed on 17 August 2007.

Malik, Colonization of Islam, p.185.

For Chinioti’s life sketch see Khaled Ahmed, “Maulana Chinioti the Great Apostatiser (1931, Friday Times (13-19 August 2004 Lahore) For detailed reference see Tahir Kamran “Contexualizing Sectarianism in Pakistan: A Case Study of Jhang District” Unpublished paper, presented at History Department, University of Southampton on 26th November, 2006. Also see Azmat Abbas, Sectarianism: The Players and the Game (Lahore: South Asia Partnership-Pakistan, 2002).

86Haq Nawaz belonged to Mauza Chela Thana Massan tehsil and district Jhang. He was born in 1952 and hailed from Sipra clan with a very small land holding. His father Wali Muhammad was a known khojji of the area. Haq Nawaz could not go beyond fourth grade in school. He was then sent to Hafiz Jan Muhammad to learn Quran by heart which he did in two years. Hafiz Jan Muhammad persuaded him to go to Masjid Shiekhan Wali in Abdul Hakim (presently in district Khanewal). There, he learnt the art of recitation from Qari Taj Muhammad and also acquired knowledge of grammar. Then, he spent five years at Dar ul Ulum, Kabirwalla, and was greatly influenced by Maulana Manzur Ahmed who was a famous Deobandi scholar of the area. Lastly, he went to Khair ul Madariss, Multan to learn hadith. He remained there for seven years. Then, he had a brief stint as Imam at Toba Tek Singh. He came to Jhang in 1973 as a Khateeb of Masid Mohalla Piplianwalla. Interview from Haq Nawaz’ s elder brother Mehr Sher Muhammad and his cousin Hafiz Muhammad Nawaz, Mauza Chela, Jhang August 2006 quoted in Ibid.

For detailed account see Ibid.

Julie Sirrs, The Taliban Foreign Fighters: A Report Prepared for the Committee for a free Afghanistan (Washington: Committee for a Free Afghanistan, 21 January 2001).

Olivier Roy, “Islamic Radicalism in Afghanistan and Pakistan” see website, \\H:\sectarianism\The Islamic threat.htm, assessed on 20 September 2007.

90This point has been deduced from Barbara Metcalf’s paper “Islamic Arguments in Contemporary Pakistan” which forms the part of her book Islamic Contestations: Essays on

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