FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Online materials, documents

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 ||

«Sergio Fabbrini Sergio Fabbrini is Director of the School of Government and Professor of Political Science and International Relations at the LUISS ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

Those constraints were not sufficient, per sé, for neutralizing Silvio Berlusconi’s control of the parliamentary majority. Regardless of the reiterated personal scandals which negatively affected his reputation and the failure of the governmental policies in dealing with market speculation in Italian public bonds, nobody challenged the premiership of Silvio Berlusconi from within his party or parliamentary majority. Contrary to the British experience with Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair, nobody in the PDL could declare Silvio Berlusconi a liability for the party’s or parliamentary majority’s electoral future. Silvio Berlusconi continued to pursue his politics without policy to protect his hold on power. However, the deepening of the euro crisis and the ungovernable Italian public debt made that strategy untenable. In a monetary integrated euro-area, the personal disrepute of Berlusconi and the weakness of his government in terms of policy-making capabilities ended up as a threat to the financial stability of the other euro-area member states. A formidable pressure came thus to be exercised on the Italian government from outside the country to streamline its policies, a pressure that finally led to the resignation of Silvio Berlusconi and his government on 12 November 2012.

With the nomination of Mario Monti, a technocrat, as prime minister, and a Cabinet composed of university professors, bankers and high level public officials, policy had its revenge on politics, technical competence on media personalization. Indeed, the new prime minister has a very discrete private life, shies away from any personalization of his role, uses the media for conveying to the public the complexity of the problems the country has to face rather than to stress his role as the country’ savior. In sum, the Italian experience shows the inevitability of the personalization of politics at the electoral level, but also its structural limits when the personalized politics has to deal with the complexity of policy-making in highly institutionalized democracies and highly interdependent economies.

–  –  –

There is no doubt that television and new electoral technologies have personalized the electoral process, making the leader much more relevant than the party. However, in both Europe and the United States, personalization of the electoral process has met with significant difficulties in transforming itself into personalization of governmental power. To be sure, decision-making power in advanced democracies has been monopolized by the leaders of the executives (and a few influential ministers or secretaries such as those of Treasury and Foreign Affairs). However, once in government, the leaders have discovered that they have to operate in a context of political constraints and institutional checks and balances, a context which has generally precluded the transformation of established democracies into plebiscitary regimes.

In Italy, it took more time than in other countries, for these constraints, to become effective in limiting Silvio Berlusconi’s personalization of government. To be sure, his media power equipped him with enormous firepower to train on his adversaries both within and outside his majority and both within and outside Italy. But a crucial factor in his government’s survival was Berlusconi’s personal control of his party and parliamentary majority. Without a party or parliamentary majority relatively independent from its leader and worried about their electoral future, it is difficult to replace a prime minister who has performed unsatisfactorily with another leader from the same camp. Although the constraints on Silvio Berlusconi’s strategy to personalize the government continued to operate, nevertheless they could not have effect without the pressure coming from the financial market and EU institutions and leaders. The fall of Silvio Berlusconi’s political leadership is the outcome of a combination of domestic and especially European forces.

This outcome seems paradoxical. In fact, if in many countries the process of Europeanization is criticized for curtailing domestic democracies (decisions are taken far from national electorates within opaque institutions such as the European Council and without significant control by national parliaments), in Italy that very process was instrumental in neutralizing a strategy of personalization which was indeed curtailing domestic democracy. One might argue that Europeanization has become a vehicle for bringing policy back to politics, for checking the electoral logic with governmental needs. Thus, if it is true that the personalization of politics has become a characterizing feature of contemporary democracies, the Italian experience with Silvio Berlusconi shows that it is also true that the process of personalization is going to meet formidable constraints, both in the institutional systems of the various governments and in the complexity of the policy issues the holders of governmental power have to manage.


Arterton, C.F. (1987) Teledemocracy. Can Technology Protect Democracy?. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Calise, M. (2007) Il partito personale. Rome-Bari: Laterza.

Campus, D. (2006) L’antipolitica al governo. De Gaulle, Reagan e Berlusconi. Bologne: Il Mulino.

Campus, D. (2010) Mediatization and Personalization of Politics in Italy and France: The Case of Berlusconi and Sarkozy’. The International Journal of Press/Politics 15 (2): 219-235.

Castells, M. (2009) Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Corbetta, P. e Gasperoni, G. (eds.) (2007), I sondaggi politici nelle democrazie contemporanee. Bologne: Il Mulino.

Dalton, R.J. and Wattemberg, M. (2002) Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Duverger, M. 1961 (1951), Les parties politiques. Paris: A. Colin.

Edelmann, M. (1977) Political Language: Words That Succeed and Policies That Fail. New York: Academic Press.

Edelmann, M. (1988) Constructing the Political Spectacle. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Fabbrini, S. (2005) The Semi-Sovereign American Prince: The Dilemma of an Independent President in a Presidential Government. In T. Poguntke and P. Webb (eds.) The Presidentialization of Politics. A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 313-335.

Fabbrini, S. (2008) America and Its Critics: Virtues and Vices of the Democratic Hyperpower. Cambridge:


Fabbrini, S. (2011) When Media and Politics Overlap: Inferences from the Italian Case. Government and Opposition, 46, (3): 345-364.

Farrell, D.M. (1996) Campaign Strategies and Tactics. In: L. LeDuc, R.G. Niemi and P. Norris (eds.), Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Fenster, M. (2008) The Politics of Symbols: Reconsidering Murray Edelman. Paper presented at the annual conference of Law and Society; 10 October, Las Vegas, NV.

Galston, W.A. (2010) Can a Polarized American Party System Be “Healthy”?. Issues in Governance Studies 34.

Ginsberg, B. (1986) The Captive Public: How Mass Opinion Promote State Power. New York: Basic Books.

Ginsberg, B. (2007) The American Lie: Government by the People and Other Political Fables. Boulder, CO:

Paradigm Publishers.

Grossman, L. (1996) Electronic Republic: Reshaping American Democracy for the Information Age. London:

Penguin, 2nd edition.

Hallin, D. C. and Mancini, P. (eds.) (2004) Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Helms, L. (2008) Governing the Media Age: The Impact of Mass Media on Executive Leadership in Contemporary Democracies. Government and Opposition, 43, (2).

Hopkins, J. and Van Houten, P. (eds.) (2009). Decentralization and State-Wide Parties. Special issue of Party Politics 15 (2).

Kernell, S. (2006) Going Public: New Strategies of Presidential Leadership. Washington D.C.: C.Q. Press, 4° edition.

Kontorowicz, E.H. (1997) The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology. Princeton:

Princeton University Press.

La Raja, R. (2008) Small Change: Money, Political Parties and Campaign Finance Reform. Ann Arbour:

University of Michigan Press.

Lathrop, D.A. (2003) The Campaign Continues: How Political Consultants and Campaign Tactics Affect Public Policy. Westport: Praeger.

Lazar, M. (2009) L’Italia sul filo del rasoio. La democrazia nel paese di Berlusconi. Milan: Rizzoli.

Lowi, T.J. (1985) The Personal President: Power Invested Promise Unfulfilled. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Manin, B. (1997) The Principles of Representative Government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Marletti, C. (2010) La repubblica dei media. L’Italia dal politichese alla politica iperreale. Bologne: Il Mulino.

Masciulli, J. Molchanow, M.A. and Knight, W.A. (eds.) (2009) Political Leadership. Oxon: Ashgate.

Mazzoleni, G. and Sfardini, A. (2009). Political Pop. Da “Porta a Porta” a “l’Isola dei Famosi”. Bologne: Il Mulino.

Mc Luhan, M. (1968) The Global Village. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

McNamara, C. and Marlowe, M.M. (eds.) (2011) The Obama Presidency in the Constitutional Order: A First Look. Lahaman, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Rokkan, S. (1970) Citizens, Elections, Parties: Approaches to the Comparative Study of the Processes of Development. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Sartori, G. (1997) Homo videns. Televisione e post-pensiero. Rome-Bari: Laterza.

Sartori, G. (2003) Opinione pubblica. In: G. Sartori Elementi di teoria politica. Bologne: Il Mulino, pp. 163-199, 2° edition.

Schmidt, V. (2006) Politics in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tuccari, F. and Armao, F. (eds.) (2002) Il governo Berlusconi: le parole, i fatti, i rischi. Rome-Bari: Laterza.

i It is a PR system with a majority bonus for the list with most votes. The lists are closed in the sense that, in each constituency, the voters vote for the list but not the candidates constituting it. The candidates on the list are chosen by the national leaders. Moreover, the national leaders can submit their candidacies in several constituencies, thus deciding after the election which constituency they want to represent. Thus, in many constituencies, the fate of the candidates at

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 ||

Similar works:

«Evolution and Impact of ‘Deobandi’ Islam in the Punjab Tahir Kamran• Abstract This paper seeks to delineate the process that culminated into the proliferation of Deobandi version of Islam in the Punjab that eventually led to the formulation of terrorist outfits by the closing years of twentieth century. Gradual creeping of Deobandi influence was not in consonance with the composite cultural ethos that was very intrinsic to the Punjab. In the colonial Punjab and even before that, saints...»

«Consumer Council for Water Board Agenda Meeting in Public Tuesday 9 February 2016 (10.30) Grenville Room, Marriott Hotel, Preston Members: Bernard Crump – Regional Chair David Heath – Regional Chair Julie Hill – Independent Member Philip Johnson – Independent Member Robert Light – Regional Chair Alan Lovell – Council Chair Tony Redmond – Regional Chair and Vice Chair of the Council Tony Smith – Chief Executive Tom Taylor – Wales Chair Attending: Kevin EnsellOperations Manager,...»

«AVRSB Regular Meeting Regional Office, Berwick December 4, 2013 INDEX BD13:151 Approval of Agenda as Amended [Approved] BD13:152 Approval of Annual Board Meeting Minutes November 6, 2013 [Approved] BD13:153 Nominating Committee Report [Approved] BD13:154 Dissolve the Nominating Committee [Approved] Recommendation to the Board – BP 403.10 Medication/Medical BD13:155 Treatment Renamed BP 403.10 Administration of Medication to Students and Revised (Approved February 12, 2014) [Deferred] BD13:156...»

«AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONALISM Howard Gillman • Mark A. Graber • Keith E. Whittington Supplementary Material The Contemporary Era—Democratic Rights/Free Speech McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission, _ U.S. _ (2014) Shaun McCutcheon, a wealthy electrical engineer and member of the Jefferson County, Alabama, Republican Party Executive and Steering Committees, intended to contribute at least $60,000 to candidates running for federal office and $75,000 to political committees during the...»

«L I S A N D RO P É R E Z Reflections on the Future of Cuba A B S T R AC T Those who have spent their lifetimes studying Cuba know that predicting its future has always been a fool’s errand. Given the speculations that arose following the illness of Fidel Castro, I undertook the task, with some trepidation, of reflecting on that future. I argue that, though anything may happen, it is likely that the forces of continuity will prevail, defying the expectations in both Washington and Miami,...»

«nugGETs Vol. 2 Issue 4 October from RI Director Guiller E Tumangan and Rotary Leaders of Zones 7A, 7B, and 8 DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE Greetings to all Rotary Leaders! Top of the news is the confirmation of IAN RISELEY as RI PresidentNominee. Congratulations! Another reason to be joyful are the 13 new members of the Arch C. Klumph Society. We celebrate our membership growth of 14,770 for the first quarter. What a Gift to the World! This month’s issue focuses on policy decisions reached during the...»

«AVRSB Regular Meeting Regional Office, Berwick January 7, 2015 INDEX BD15:001 Approval of Agenda [Approved] BD15:002 Approval of Regular Board Minutes of December 3, 2014 [Approved] Recommendation to the Board – BD15:003 Board Policy 305.14 – Volunteers in Schools Amended [Approved] Recommendation to the Board – BD15:004 [Approved] Terms of Reference for the Human Resources Committee Recommendation to the Board – BD15:005 [Approved] Terms of Reference for the Education Committee...»

«2 Five Open Questions about Prediction Markets Justin Wolfers and Eric Zitzewitz Interest in prediction markets has increased in the past decade among participants, private-sector market operators, policymakers, and academics. Markets on the 2004 U.S. election, for instance, were far more numerous and liquid than they were in 2000. Although past media coverage often treated these markets as curiosities, coverage in the 2004 election cycle was far more frequent and more serious than four years...»

«America Still Unprepared — America Still in Danger Report of an Independent Task Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations Gary Hart and Warren B. Rudman, Co-Chairs Stephen E. Flynn, Project Director The Council on Foreign Relations is dedicated to increasing America’s understanding of the world and contributing ideas to U.S. foreign policy. The Council accomplishes this mainly by promoting constructive debates and discussions, clarifying world issues, and publishing Foreign...»

«TRADE UNION POLITICAL FUNDS A guide for trade unions, their members and others Introduction Setting up a political fund Operating a political fund Contracting out of a political fund Reviewing the political fund Unlawful expenditure on political objects Independent scrutiny of political fund ballots The independent person Duty of confidentiality What is the duty of confidentiality? Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Introduction A trade union wishing to spend money on party political activities...»

«Joint Investigation Teams: The Panacea for Fighting Organised Crime? Paper for the ECPR Annual Conference 2011 Reykjavik, Iceland, 25-27 August 2011 Section 110, panel 338 Ludo Block, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands l.block@vu.nl Introduction The concept of ‘joint teams’ as a promising strategy for combating organised crime and terrorism by police of the European Union (EU) Member States was first introduced in the 1997 Amsterdam Treaty, and envisages officers from different...»

«New Student Reading Project Fall 2008 Student Essay Winners Alexandar Perez Kate Orlofsky Gabriella Bensur Miles Ludek Marc Leh Gabrielle Yo Mauricio Vieto Matthew Christensen Xiao Wang Steven Xu Honorable Mention Olivia Carman John Kirk Benjamin D. Walker Elsie Shogren Ragini Sharma “All modern political prose descends from the Gettysburg address,” Wills claims, in what he says is only a mild exaggeration (p.148). What features of Lincoln’s address make it “modern,” in Wills’ view,...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.thesis.dislib.info - Online materials, documents

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.