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# «PILE DRIVING ANALYSIS BY THE WAVE EQUATION For technical assistance, contact: Dr. Lee L. Lowery, Jr., P.E. Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M ...»

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WAM(1) = 3.0, ram weight WAM(8) = 1.04, pile segment weight

Card 0301:

XKAM(7) = 2500

Case XVI Assume that a 12"x12" prestressed concrete pile 60 feet long is to be driven to a penetration of 30 feet below the mudline, clay at the side and at the point of the pile, using a standard Link Belt 312 open-end diesel hammer. Case XVI is the same as Case III except for the hammer utilized to drive the pile.

Hammer From Appendix C, the properties of a Link Belt 312 hammer, which is an open-end diesel

hammer, are found to be:

Ram Weight (WAM(1)) = 3.855 kips Maximum Stroke (h) = 3.87 ft Distance from Anvil to Exhaust Ports (c) = 0.5 ft Efficiency = 100% Anvil Weight (WAM(2)) = 1.188 kips Helmet Weight (WAM(3)) = 1.381 kips (assumed)

The ram velocity at impact (VELMI) is computed by:

VELMI = sqrt[2g(h - c)*efficiency] VELMI = sqrt[(64.4)(3.87 - 0.5)(1.00)] = 14.73 ft/sec

The spring rate for the ram:

The value for XKAM(1), the spring rate for the ram, can be found in Appendix C, in Table C2.

XKAM(1) = 14,250 kips/inch The assumed coefficient of restitution between the ram and the anvil will be 0.9. EEM1 = 0.9 Capblock and Cushion From Appendix C, the properties for the capblock and cushion are found to be the same as those used in Case III. The dimensions are also assumed to be the same. Thus, the spring rate and all other input parameters are the same as in Case III.

Pile The pile used in this case is the same pile driven in Case III.

Soil Identical to Case III.

Card Input: Case XVI 0001 and 0002 for problem identification are changed.

Card 0101:

NOP(7) = 1

Card 0102:

VELMI = 14.73, GAMMA1 = 98.0 Card 0103: RUT = 100, total resistance RUP = 5, resistance beneath the point of the pile DR2 = 2.5, DR3 = 3.0, DR4 = 3.25

Card 0201:

WAM(1) = 3.855, ram weight WAM(2) = 1.188, anvil weight WAM(3) = 1.381, helmet weight

Card 0301:

XKAM(1) = 14,250, spring rate of the ram

Case XVII Assume that an HP8x36 steel pile 100 feet long is to be driven to a penetration of 80 feet below the mudline with sand at the side and at the point of the pile, using a standard MKT DE-30 open-end diesel hammer.

Hammer From Appendix C, the properties of a MKT DE-30 hammer are found to be Ram Weight (WAM(1)) = 2.8 kips Observed Total Stroke of Ram = 8 ft (observed in field) Distance from Anvil to Exhaust Ports (c) = 1.04 ft Efficiency = 100% Anvil Weight (WAM(2)) = 0.774 Helmet Weight (WAM(3)) = 1.0 kips (assumed) Note that the helmet weights and cushion dimensions are not listed in Appendix C, since they vary from job to job and with each contractor. They must be individually determined.

The ram velocity at impact (VELMI) is computed by:

VELMI = sqrt[2g(h - c)efficiency VELMI = sqrt[(64.4)(8.0 - 1.04) (1.00)] VELMI = 21.17 ft/sec Cushion

From Appendix C:

Cushion: OAK Size (assumed) = 12"x12" Thickness (assumed) = 6.0" Modulus of Elasticity (E) = 45 kips/in^2 Coefficient of Restitution (EEM2) = 0.5 GAMMA2 = 0.0 Spring rate for cushion XKAM(2) = (12"x12")(45 ksi)/6" = 1080 kips/inch Capblock: Not used.

Pile

The pile to be driven is an HP8x36 steel pile, 100 feet long. Given information is as follows:

Area = 10.6 in^2 Length = 100 feet Modulus of Elasticity = 30000 kips/in^2 The pile segment lengths are 10-foot each, for 10 elements.

The segment weights are computed by:

WAM(I) = AL(gamma) = WAM(4) = (10.6 in^2)(10ftx12in/ft)(490kips/ft3)1728in/ft = 0.36 kips Thus, WAM(4) through WAM(13) = 0.36 kips

To compute the spring rates of the 10-foot pile segments:

XKAM(3) through XKAM(12) = AE/L = (10.6in^2)(30000 ksi)/(10 ft x 12 in/ft) = 2650 kips/inch.

Soil

The soil properties, as determined from soil borings and tests are assumed as follows:

Soil Type: Sand Soil Resistance: 90% distributed uniformly along side of pile in friction, 10% point bearing Set up of soil = 1.0 Card Input: Case XVII Using the values from Case XVII, the following cards are necessary to run the program.

Cards 0001 and 0002:

Problem identification cards

Card 0101:

NSTOP = 200, IPRINT = 5, NS1 = 1, NS2 = 2, NS3 = 3, NS4 = 7 NS5 = 10, NS6 = 13, NOP(l) = 1, NOP(2) = l, NOP(3) = 1 NOP(4) = 3, NOP(5) = 1, NOP(6) = 1, NOP(7) = 1 NOP(8) = 1, NOP(9) = 1 NOP(10) = 1, NOP(ll) = 1, NOP(12) = 1

Card 0102:

MP = 13, last pile segment MH = 4, first pile segment VELMI = 21.17, initial velocity of the ram at impact AREA = 10.6, area of pile EEMl = 0.9 EEM2 = 0.5 EEM3 = 1.0 GAMMAl = 98.0, explosive force of ram GAMMA2 = 0.0 GAMMA3 = 0.0

Card 0103:

RUT = 100, total soil resistance RUP = 10, resistance beneath the point of the pile MO = 6, first segment of pile beneath the mudline QSIDE = 0.1 QPOINT = O.1 SIDEJ = 0.05, sand damping at the side of the pile POINTJ = 0.15, sand damping beneath the point of the pile DRl = 2.0 DR2 = 2.5 DR3 = 3.0

Card 0201:

WAM(l) = 2.8, ram weight WAM(2) = 0.774, anvil weight WAM(3) = 1.0, helmet weight WAM(13) = 0.36, pile segment weights for 4 through 13 Card 0301 XKAM(1) = 3870, spring rate of ram XKAM(2) = 1080, spring rate of cushion XKAM(12) = 2650, spring rate of pile segments 4 through 12 - entered as XKAM(12) because the last spring for the pile is placed above the last pile segment.

–  –  –

## SELECTED REFERENCES

1. Lowery, L. L., T. J. Hirsch, and C. H. Samson, Jr., "Pile Driving Analysis - Simulation of Hammers, Pile and Soils," Research Report 33-9, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, August, 1967.

2. Lowery, L. L., "Dynamic Behavior of Piling," a dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, May, 1967.

3. Lowery, L.L. and T.J. Hirsch, "Use of the Wave Equation to Predict Soil Resistance on a Pile During Driving," Research Report 33-10, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, December 1967.

4. Hirsch, T. J., L. L. Lowery, T. C. Edwards and H. M. Coyle, "Pile Driving Analysis - State of the Art," report of the Texas Transportation Institute, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, February, 1968.

5. Hirsch, T. J., L. L. Lowery, C. H. Samson, Jr. and T. C. Edwards, "Energy Output of Pile Driver Hammers," presented to the 47th Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board, Washington, D. C., January, 1968.

6. Edwards, T. C., "Piling Analysis Wave Equation Computer Program Utilization Manual," Research Report 33-11, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, August, 1967.

7. Chan, P. C., T. J. Hirsch and H. M. Coyle, "A Laboratory Study of Dynamic Load Deformation and Damping Properties of Sands Concerned with a Pile-Soil System," Research Report 33-7, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, June, 1967.

8. Edwards, T. C., L. L. Lowery and T. J. Hirsch, "Properties of Pile Cushioning Materials," Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, January, 1968.

9. Hirsch, T. J., "Stresses in Long Prestressed Concrete Piles During Driving," Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, September, 1962.

10. Hirsch, T. J., "Computer Study of Variables Which Affect the Behavior of Concrete Piles During Driving," Report of the Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, August, 1963.

11. Hirsch, T. J., "Field Tests of Prestressed Concrete Piles During Driving," Report of the Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, August, 1963.

12. Hirsch, T. J., C. H. Samson, Jr. and L. L. Lowery, "Driving Stresses in Prestressed Concrete Piles," presented at the annual meeting of the Structural Division of ASCE, San Francisco, California, September, 1963.

13. Hirsch, T. J. and C. H. Samson, Jr., "Driving Practices for Prestressed Concrete Piles," Texas Transportation Institute Research Report 33-3, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, April, 1966.

14. Hirsch, T. J., "Fundamental Design and Driving Considerations for Concrete Piles," paper presented to the 45th Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board, Washington, D. C., 1966.

15. Samson, C. H., Jr., "Pile-Driving Analysis by the Wave Equation (Computer Procedure)," report of the Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, May, 1962.

16. Samson, C. H., Jr., T. J. Hirsch and L. L. Lowery, "Computer Study of Dynamic Behavior of Piling," Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Volume 89, No. ST4, Proc. Paper 3608, August, 1963, pp. 413-449.

17. Hirsch, T. J. and T. C. Edwards, "Impact Load-Deformation Properties of Pile Cushioning Materials," Research Report 33-4, Project 2-5-62-33, Piling Behavior, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, May, 1966.

18. Smith, E. A. L., "The Wave Equation Applied to Pile Driving," Raymond Concrete Pile Co., 1957.

19. Smith, E. A. L., "Pile Calculations by the Wave Equation," Concrete and Constructional Engr., London, June, 1958.

20. Smith, E. A. L., "Pile Driving Impact," Proceedings, Industrial Computation Seminar, September, 1950, International Business Machines Corp., New York, N. Y., 1951, p. 44.

21. Smith, E. A. L., "Impact and Longitudinal Wave Transmission," Transactions, ASME, August, 1955, p. 963.

22. Smith, E. A. L., "What Happens When Hammer Hits Pile," Engineering News Record, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., September 5, 1957, p. 46.

23. Smith, E. A. L., "Tension in Concrete Piles During Driving," Journal Prestressed Concrete Institute, Vol. 5, 1960, pp. 35-40.

24. Smith, E.A.L., "Pile-Driving Analysis by the Wave Equation, Transactions, ASCE, Vol. 127, 1964, Part I, p. 1145.

25. Gardner, S. V., and D. H. New, "Some Experiences with Prestressed Concrete Piles," Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 18, January, 1961, pp. 43-66, and Vol. 21, April, 1962, pp. 867-891, London, England.

26. Glanville, W. H., G. Grime, E. N. Fox and W. W. Davies, "An Investigation of the Stresses in Reinforced Concrete Piles During Driving," British Building Research Board Technical Paper No.

20, Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1938.

27. Chan, P. C. and T. J. Hirsch, "An Annotated Bibliography - Soil Dynamics and Soil Rheology," Report of the Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, 1960.

28. Forehand, P. W. and J. L. Reese, "Pile Driving Analysis Using the Wave Equation," Master of Science in Engineering Thesis, Princeton University, 1963.

29. Michigan State Highway Commission, "A Performance Investigation of Pile Driving Hammers and Piles," Office of Testing and Research, Lansing, Michigan, March, 1965.

30. Chellis, Robert D., "Pile Foundations", McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1961.

31. Coyle, H. M., Bartoskewitz, R. E., and Berger, W. J., "Bearing Capacity by Wave Equation Analysis - State of the Art," Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, August 1973.

## APPENDIX G - MICROWAVE/EDITWAVE

–  –  –

Permission granted to copy both software and user's manuals so long as original author credits remain.

Introduction - MICROWAVE

MICROWAVE consists of two main programs:

l) EDITWAVE - used to build new data sets or to modify old data sets, and for general file handling necessary in building data sets for use in the wave equation. Examples include displaying files on disk, deleting old files no longer needed to make room for new files, renaming data files with more current or more applicable names, copying a file to provide a second or backup copy under a new name, merging two or more data sets to be run at the same time, and to print resulting answers from the wave equation on paper.

2) MW88 or MW87 - The program MICROWAVE has the name MW88 or MW87 on the disk, and is used to study pile driving by the wave equation. This program is the actual wave equation solution used to run data generated by EDITWAVE. If your computer has a high-speed math co-processor you should run MW87, as it uses the high speed math coprocessor, and will run much more quickly. If a co-processor is not installed, you must run MW88.

NOTE - 1994: These programs were originally written to accommodate numerous kinds of computers, and as such the instructions may well ask you to do some goofy things, like "hit control C to boot in your drives". Please just ignore such things if you have a IBM or compatible which doesn't require such nonsense, but follow those instructions to the letter if you have an Osborne, or CPM type computer. Also, since some computers require the entry of data in upper case only, EDITWAVE and MICROWAVE REQUIRE that you turn on the caps lock key. They won't take data any other way. Furthermore, much of the information below assumes that you do not have a hard drive - probably a poor assumption in 1994. If you do have a hard drive, simply copy everything to a subdirectory of your choice, and run everything from there.

Program Operation EDITWAVE To build data sets, put the program disk marked EDITWAVE in drive A:, and a blank formatted disk in Drive B:, for use as your data disk. On some micros it is necessary to hit Control C to "boot" in the drives so that the data disk can be written. The program disk, new in drive A:, can now be used to generate data which will be written to the data disk in Drive B:. For hard disk operation, simply copy all program files on both distribution disks to a subdirectory on your computer, and run everything from there.

To invoke the program, put the caps lock key on and type: EDITWAVE. The computer will read

the program from the disk and will display a "MAIN MENU" similar to the following:

–  –  –

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