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«National Research Conseil national Council Canada de recherches Canada Centre for Surface Centre de technologie des Transportation Technology ...»

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Several European studies analyzed the collisions between heavy vehicles and vulnerable road users. One of these studies, titled National Statistics Update with Respect to Front, Side and Rear Underrun of Trucks , part of the VC-COMPAT program, looked at collision data from six countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain and Sweden [19]. Only trucks with a GVW greater than 3.5 tons were considered. The analysis was carried out for collisions that occurred from 1995 to 2001, with a special emphasis on 2001 collisions. It can be seen in Figure 11 that the majority of fatalities resulting from collisions with trucks occurred in passenger

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cars. Pedestrian casualties represented the second biggest share followed by motorized twowheel vehicles and bicycles.

Figure 11: Fatalities in the opponent party in truck accidents (2001) [19] An APROSYS project report, titled Characteristics of Heavy Trucks versus Pedestrians and/or Cyclists  [20] performed an analysis of national and in-depth statistic data for truck-bicyclist and truck-pedestrian collisions that occurred between 1985 and 2003 in five countries: France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom. This report presented, among others, UK collision data, which showed that in 2002, the collisions between trucks and bicyclists resulted in 18 fatalities and 904 injuries and the truck-pedestrian collisions resulted in 30 fatalities and 1,882 injuries.

The same APROSYS report estimated the initial point of contact in collisions between trucks and bicyclists and pedestrians, based on 2001 German data provided by the automotive

consultant company DEKRA:

The area of the right corner represented the initial point of contact in 47% of the truckbicyclist collisions analyzed. The area of the front-left corner was first impacted in 9% of the collisions. The area behind the cabin was impacted by bicyclists in 13% of the cases; and The front area represented the initial point of contact in 52% of the truck-pedestrian collisions analyzed. The area of the right-corner was first impacted in 35% of these collisions. The area behind the cabin was impacted by pedestrians in 9% of the cases.

A 2004 report [21] prepared by the Heavy Duty Vehicles eSafety Working Group, presented collision data analyzed by Volvo (Sweden), CIDAUT (Spain), DEKRA (Germany) and IVECO (Italy) which pertained to collisions between trucks and VRUs. The scenarios for collisions between trucks and fatally or severely injured VRUs are shown in Figure 12. It can be seen that in at least 50% of the cases, the initial point of impact was the front or the rear of the vehicle.

This report included in the VRU category bicyclists, pedestrians and motorcyclists.

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Figure 12: Scenarios for collisions involving trucks and fatally and severely injured VRUs [21] 3.3.2 Australia Australian collision data were collected from the Road Deaths Australia: 2007 Statistical Summary  report [23] and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) Road Safety Report, Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes  [24].

The 2006-2007 data [23] shows that the number of bicyclist fatalities that resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles, was on average 40/year, or approximately 2.5% of the total number of motor vehicle collision fatalities per year. The number of pedestrian fatalities that resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles was on average 214/year, or approximately 13% of the total number of fatalities per year.

Figure 13 shows the proportions of each vehicle type in collisions which resulted in bicyclist fatalities between 1996 and 2000. It can be seen that articulated and rigid trucks accounted for 33% of the vehicle types.

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Figure 13: Vehicle types involved in collisions which resulted in bicyclist fatalities, 1996-2000 [24] 3.3.3 Japan Japanese collision statistics were more difficult to obtain and only limited data were identified. A 2008 document [25] shows that in 2005, 4% of the collisions involving trucks involved pedestrians. Other truck collision types are illustrated in Figure 14. However, the total numbed of collisions is unknown.

Figure 14: Accident caused by large trucks, Japan, 2005 [25]

Another document that provided some information about Japanese collisions was a TNO, a Dutch vehicle research firm, report published in 2008, titled Bicycle Safety in Bicycle to car Accidents  [26]. The report cited Japanese data presented by T. Maki in his 2002 Ph.D. thesis Protection of vulnerable road users based on controlling their impact behaviour . Only the fatality rate, calculated as the ratio of fatalities to the total number of injuries, for bicyclists and pedestrians

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was presented. The fatality rate for pedestrians was calculated to be 3.1% and that for bicyclists 0.75%.

3.3.4 Canada Canadian data on urban collisions involving vulnerable road users and heavy vehicles was provided by Transport Canada. These data were extracted from the National Collision Database (NCDB) and covered the years from 2004 to 2006 for all Provinces except Manitoba. The analysis was limited to fatal and injury collisions only and considered only bicyclist-heavy vehicle and pedestrian-heavy vehicle urban collisions.





The bicyclist and pedestrian casualties which resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles from 2004 to 2006 are presented in Table 3 and Table 4.

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3.3.4.1 Bicyclist-heavy vehicle urban collisions data The bicyclist-heavy vehicle analysis was based on 492 casualties, which resulted from urban collisions. These collisions involved only one bicycle and one heavy vehicle. Collisions involving other vehicle types or pedestrians, collisions involving multiple bicycles and collisions involving multiple heavy vehicles were not taken into consideration. Of the 492 bicycle-heavy vehicle casualties analyzed, 24 resulted in bicyclist fatalities (4.9%) and 468 resulted in bicyclist injuries (95.1%), as shown in Table 5.

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Overall, 60.9% of all bicyclist fatalities occurred at intersections with public roads. The majority of bicyclist injuries (59.6%) also occurred at intersections with public roads.

Table 7 shows bicyclist casualties which resulted from bicycle-heavy vehicle urban collisions, by heavy vehicle type.

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As shown in Table 7, 45.8% of bicyclist fatalities resulted from collisions involving truck tractors.

In addition, a significant number of bicyclists were killed as a result of collisions with unit trucks

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with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kg (10,000 lb). The majority of bicyclist injuries (52.8%) occurred as a result of collisions with unit trucks.

Table 8 shows bicyclist casualties which resulted from bicycle-heavy vehicle urban collisions, by heavy vehicle manoeuvre.

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Approximately 39.1% of the bicyclist fatalities resulted from collisions where the heavy vehicle was traveling straight ahead just before the collision occurred. In addition, approximately 39.1% of the bicyclist fatalities resulted from collisions where the heavy vehicle was turning right just before the collision occurred. Approximately 47.1% of bicyclist injuries resulted from collisions where the heavy vehicle was traveling straight ahead just before the collision occurred.

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The first impact location between bicyclists and heavy vehicles was more difficult to determine due to the lack of details in the reporting system. Approximately 42.9% of the bicyclist fatalities resulted from collisions where the first impact location with the heavy vehicle was the front of the vehicle (front, right front and left front). Approximately 41% of bicyclist injuries resulted from collisions where the first point of impact with the heavy vehicle was the front of the vehicle (front, right front and left front). The right side (right middle, right rear and entire right side) of the heavy vehicle was the initial point of impact in approximately 28.5% of cases for bicyclist fatalities and 33.4% of cases for bicyclist injuries.

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3.3.4.2 Pedestrian-heavy vehicle urban collisions data The pedestrian-heavy vehicle analysis was based on 1,019 urban casualties, which resulted from urban collisions. These collisions involved only one pedestrian and one heavy vehicle.

Collisions involving other vehicle types and collisions involving multiple heavy vehicles were not taken into consideration. The 1,019 pedestrian-heavy vehicle urban casualties analyzed resulted in 77 pedestrian fatalities (7.6%) and 942 pedestrian injuries (92.4%) as shown in Table 10.

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Overall, 44.6% of all pedestrian fatalities occurred at intersections with public roads. The majority of pedestrian injuries (53%) also occurred at intersections with public roads.

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As shown in Table 12, 44.2% of pedestrian fatalities resulted from collisions which involved unit trucks with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kg (10,000 lb). In addition, a significant number of pedestrians (37.7%) were killed as a result of collisions with truck tractors. The largest number of pedestrian injuries (44.5%) occurred as a result of collisions with unit trucks.

Table 13 shows pedestrian casualties resulted from pedestrian-heavy vehicle urban collisions, by heavy vehicle manoeuvre.

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Approximately 32.4% of the pedestrian fatalities resulted from collisions where the heavy vehicle was traveling straight ahead just before the collision occurred, while approximately 16.9% of the pedestrian fatalities resulted from collisions where the heavy vehicle was turning right just before the collision occurred. Approximately 39.7% of pedestrian injuries resulted from collisions where the heavy vehicle was traveling straight ahead just before the collision occurred.

Table 14 shows pedestrian casualties resulted from pedestrian-heavy vehicle urban collisions, by first impact location on heavy vehicle.

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The first impact location between pedestrians and heavy vehicles was more difficult to determine due to the lack of details in the reporting system. Approximately 45.8% of the pedestrian fatalities resulted from collisions where the first impact location with the heavy vehicle was the front of the vehicle (front, right front and left front). Approximately 50.2% of pedestrian injuries resulted from collisions where the first point of impact with the heavy vehicle was the front of the vehicle (front, right front and left front). The right side of the heavy vehicle (right middle, right rear and entire right side) was the initial point of impact in approximately 6.3% of cases for pedestrian fatalities and 14.6% of cases for pedestrian injuries.

3.3.4.3 Other Canadian data

A 2006 report from the City of Toronto [13] presented details about collisions involving city fleet trucks and cyclists and pedestrians between 2001 and 2003, as shown in Figure 15. The city fleet consisted of approximately 1,070 mid-size to large trucks, of which 356 were garbage trucks, 423 dump trucks, 56 utility trucks, 50 tractor-trailers, 40 crane-trucks, 26 aerial trucks and 19 street flushers.

Figure 15: City of Toronto fleet collision data, 2001-2005 [13]

The report shows that side guards would not have provided any benefit in two of these collisions. In one collision the cyclist rear-ended the truck and in another, the pedestrian was struck by the front of the truck. In the other two collisions it is not clear that side guards would have reduced the severity of injuries. Both of these collisions resulted in minor injuries. One collision involved a cyclist side-wiped by a truck and the other involved a pedestrian struck by a right-turning truck.  Canadian collision data collected by Transport Canada in cooperation with the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA) shows that the number of bicyclist fatalities which resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles was on average 60/year, or approximately 2% of the total number of road fatalities per year. The number of pedestrian fatalities which resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles was on average 366/year, or approximately 13% of the total number of motor vehicle collision fatalities per year. Detailed figures for years 2002 through 2006 are shown in Figure 16.

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Figure 16 - Canadian Motor Vehicle Fatalities, 2002-2006, all motor vehicles [14] Based on the data presented in Table 5 and Table 10, the percentage of bicyclists and pedestrians killed in urban collisions with heavy vehicles with respect to the number road users killed as a result of collisions with all motor vehicles was calculated and it is shown in Table 15.

Table 15: Bicyclists and pedestrians killed in urban collisions with heavy vehicles, Canada, 2004

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3.3.5 U.S.

US collision data were extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) on-line database [22]. The 2005-2007 data shows that the number of bicyclist fatalities that resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles, was on average 752/year, or approximately 1.8% of the total number of road user fatalities per year. The number of pedestrian fatalities that resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles was on average 4,331/year, or approximately 10% of the total number of motor vehicle collision fatalities per year. In addition, data were extracted for the same years for collisions which involved heavy vehicles and VRUs. Detailed figures of the analysis are shown in Table 16. It can be seen that bicyclist fatalities which resulted from collisions with heavy vehicles represented approximately 10% (75 vs. 752) of the bicyclist fatalities which resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles between 2005 and 2007.

Pedestrian fatalities which resulted from collisions with heavy vehicles represented approximately 6% (263 vs. 4,331) of the pedestrian fatalities which resulted from collisions with all motor vehicles between 2005 and 2007.

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